6. What can be inferred about the student when he says this: But can't kitschy also mean something good, that's, um, in style? Like I thought something nostalgic or retrograde could also be called kitsch. (A)He does not respect the professor's opinion. (B)He is familiar with the concept of kitsch. (C)He misunderstood the professor's main point. (D)He is probably majoring in art history.
TOEFL® based listening exercises (lectures) –Answer keysPhotocopiable 127 © TOEFL listening lecture 43NarratorListen to part of a lecture from a social science class. Prof: Several theories compete to explain when, how, and where -- check that, why -- wild horses were initially domesticated. Primitive cave art depicts horses as early as 32,000 years ago, but it's generally agreed that humans did not domesticate the animals until sometime between 5,000 and, uh, 2,000 BC. Many scholars accept a theory, er, an hypothesis, that domestication occurred in the Ukraine about 4,000 BC. However, recent archaeological evidence indicates that horses in northern Kazakhstan might have been domesticated as much as 1,600 years earlier than that by people of the Botai culture. The Botai appeared to depend on horses for transportation, food and tools. But ... [pause] one of the archaeologists who discovered this new evidence has speculated that horses were domesticated even earlier, probably in Russia or the Ukraine, and then ridden east to Kazakhstan. Thus the plot thickens. Why is it so hard to pinpoint the definitive time and place of the earliest horse domestication? One, a major reason is a lack of concrete evidence, such as bits, reins, spurs, and saddles. Anatomically, modern horses are almost identical to their wild ancestors, which forces researchers to rely on circumstantial evidence in formulating domestication hypotheses. Archaeological excavations at several eastern European sites that date to the 4,500 to 3,000 BC range, for instance, reveal equine molar wear likely caused by friction from a bit. Whether the use of a bit signals full domestication or simple captivity, however, is subject to debate. Um, at the Kazakhstan site mentioned above, part of the case presented for domestication is soil analysis that indicates ancient, uh, horse manure within a corral-like enclosure. But again, the fact horses may have lived, er, been kept together in a corral does not necessarily equate with domesticity, because many ancient peoples used horses for meat and, uh, help with labor, similar to the use of oxen in harvesting today. Recent DNA comparisons between living horses and horse fossils suggest that domestication cannot be narrowed to a single place or time; rather, it occurred more or less simultaneously all over the world. Because the DNA analysis revealed widespread genetic [false start] widespread genetic variances among both modern and ancient horses - unlike other domesticated animals, like sheep and cattle - it appears that domesticated horses had multiple wild lineages in many different places.
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