Accomplished but taking concurrently into account the

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accomplished, but taking concurrently into account the impact of human activities on the environment. Cities are therefore places where economic development and cultural richness, but also traf fi c, congestion, dif fi culty to access to public services and pollution coexist, impacting both positively and negatively on the citizens quality of daily life. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017 R.P. Dameri, Smart City Implementation , Progress in IS, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-45766-6_3 45
Smart city is considered like a crucial urban strategy to face these problems, preventing pollution and congestion and supporting innovation, economic devel- opment and inclusion in the meantime [ 4 ]. However, it is not simple to say what a Smart city is. A recognized de fi nition of Smart city has not been written until now, even if some aspects often emerge like must-to-be components for smarter cities, for example ICT. ICT is also the core component of other urban strategies, named Digital city, Wired city, and so on. As ICT is a fundamental driver of smartness in cities, to better understand its role and contribution is a critical success factor. This work aims to analyze how ICT pervades smart city initiatives, also evaluating its weight and pervasiveness in realizing digitalised urban areas. 3.2 Smart City Is a Global Trend Smart city is described like an urban area where technology and a participated governance aim to improve the citizens quality of life and concurrently reduce the city environmental footprint, preserving natural resources [ 5 ]. City is the subject, high technologies and governance are the instruments and people and the envi- ronment are the addressers of strategies acting in the urban area with a very large scope, including mobility, urban infrastructure, social policies, culture, economic development and so on (Fig. 3.2 ). Smart city roots are faraway in the time, but only from 2010 the topic had a boom [ 6 ]. We can fi nd the reason of this explosion of interest in several causes, such as: the increasing urbanization, the diffusion of smart phones and other smart devices that support a wired city, the EU funding for research and pilot projects aiming at using the most innovative technologies to reduce the urban footprint on the environment and the CO 2 gases emission, and so on. Fig. 3.1 Urban population and percent of urban population, all over the world. Source: United Nations [ 2 ] 46 3 Using ICT in Smart City
This high interest regards both the theoretical studies and the real implementa- tion of smart cities all over the world. A survey about scienti fi c papers indexed on Scopus shows that papers with the words smart city/ies both in the title or as keywords in 2014 accounted for 532, up from 1 in 1997, but also up from 18 in 2010: it means that the number about this topic has been increasing exponentially in the latest four years (Fig. 3.3 ).

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