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ECONOMIC ORGANITZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND MARKETS 23 2.1. How hardwired is human behaviour? 2.1.1. Introduction Evolutionary psychology, in identifying the aspects of human behaviour that are inborn and univer- sal, can explain some familiar patterns. It sheds light on why people behave in ways that do not appear to be beneficial to themselves or to their businesses. Evolutionary psychology holds that although human being today inhabit thoroughly a modern world of space exploration and virtual reality, they do so with the ingrained mentality of Stone Age Hunter-gatherers. Understanding evolutionary psychology is useful to managers because it provides a new and pro- vocative way of think about human nature; it also offers a framework for understanding why peo- ple tend to act as they do in organizational settings. 2.1.2. Natural Selection According to Charles Darwin theory human beings were not placed fully formed onto the earth. Instead, they were an evolved species. So in fact, human beings shared a common heritage with all other species. Today modern Darwinians say that evolution occurs in the following manner: 1. Environmental selection : Species with genes that produce faulty design features don’t survive the elements long enough to reproduce and pass along their genes. 2. Sexual selection: Those creatures are unattractive to other members of their group because appear weak and less likely to reproduce. Then they don’t mate and can’t reproduce. The genes that survive such selections are passed on to succeeding generations. At the same time genetic mutations appear. The characteristics that help a species thrive and propagate will survive the process of natural selection and be passed on. By these means, species evolve with stable genet- ic profiles that optimally fit the environmental niches they occupy. Evolutionary psychologist describe the creation of human mind in this way: 4 million years ago the first two-legged hominids emerged. Homo sapiens became the all-conquering survivor. However, the success of homo sapiens was not luck. The greatly expanded brain of species made possible the survival in the unpredicta- ble environment of Africa’s Savannah. The world radically changed with the invention of the agriculture 10,000 years ago. From the invention of agriculture fast and short steps have brought us to modern civilization. 2.1.3. Managerial implications of Evolutionary Psychology
ECONOMIC ORGANITZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND MARKETS 24 Thinking and feeling : o Emotions before reason: Stone Age people, because of wild predators and natural disas- ters, came to trust instincts above all else. So for human beings emotions are the first screen to all information received. Today, businesspeople are often trained to dispense with emotions in favour of rational analysis and urged to make choices using logical de- vices such as decision trees and spreadsheets (fulls de càlcul), however, emotions can never be fully supressed. Because of it, negative messages have by far greater power