7. Briefly describe 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant aspect of life for European peasants.8. How did Italian merchants become the leaders of European commerce?9. Why did Western European kings generally favor merchants over nobles?10. List 2 ways the Crusades had a profound impact on European society.11. Identify 1 distinctively Protestant idea or practice.
12. Identify 2 examples of diversity among West African civilizations in their political, social, or economic traits.13. What were the 2 primary items that Europeans sought to acquire from West Africans after they began trading in the mid-15thcentury?14. Identify 2 similarities between the spiritual beliefs of West Africans and those of Native Americans (see p.17-18.)15. What innovation enabled Portugal to become the early European leader in Atlantic exploration?16. What was the long-term significance of Vasco da Gama’s military success in India in 1502?17. What was the first purpose for which the Portuguese purchased enslaved Africans?Sixteenth-CenturyIncursions