Number of categories although there is no single

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Number of categories Although there is no single, optimal number, traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between five and nine categories 2) Balanced vs. unbalanced In general, the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data 3) Odd/even no. of categories If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some respondents, an odd number of categories should be used 4) Forced vs. non-forced In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion, the accuracy of the data may be improved by a non-forced scale 5) Verbal description An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible 6) Physical form A number of options should be tried and the best selected
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Fig. 9.1 Balanced Scale Unbalanced Scale Jovan Musk for Men is: Jovan Musk for Men is: Extremely good Extremely good Very good Very good Good Good Bad Somewhat good Very bad Bad Extremely bad Very bad Balanced and Unbalanced Scales
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Rating Scale Configurations -3 -1 0 +1 +2 -2 +3 Cheer Cheer detergent is: 1) Very harsh --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Very gentle 2) Very harsh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Very gentle 3) . Very harsh . . . Neither harsh nor gentle . . . Very gentle 4) ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Very Harsh Somewhat Neither harsh Somewhat Gentle Very harsh harsh nor gentle gentle gentle 5) Very Neither harsh Very harsh nor gentle gentle Fig. 9.2
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Thermometer Scale Instructions: Please indicate how much you like McDonald’s hamburgers by coloring in the thermometer. Start at the bottom and color up to the temperature level that best indicates how strong your preference is. Smiling Face Scale Instructions: Please point to the face that shows how much you like the Barbie Doll. If you do not like the Barbie Doll at all, you would point to Face 1. If you liked it very much, you would point to Face 5. 1 2 3 4 5 Fig. 9.3 Like very much Dislike very much 100 75 50 25 0 Some Unique Rating Scale Configurations
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Some Commonly Used Scales in Marketing Table 9.3 CONSTRUCT SCALE DESCRIPTORS Attitude Importance Satisfaction Purchase Intent Purchase Freq Very Bad Not at All Important Very Dissatisfied Definitely will Not Buy Never Bad Not Important Dissatisfied Probably Will Not Buy Rarely Neither Bad Nor Good Neutral Neither Dissat. Nor Satisfied Might or Might Not Buy Sometimes Good Important Satisfied Probably Will Buy Often Very Good Very Important Very Satisfied Definitely Will Buy Very Often
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Scale Evaluation Fig. 9.5 Discriminant Nomological Convergent Test/ Retest Alternative Forms Internal Consistency Content Criterion Construct Generalizability Reliability Validity Scale Evaluation
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Reliability Reliability
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