# Manipulating a variable under controlled conditions

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Manipulating a variable under controlled conditions to see if any changes occur in a second variable as a result - Independent Variable(IV) : the one manipulated - Dependent Variab le (DV) : the one you expect to change as a result Controlled Condition: A comparison condition; participants do not receive the experimental manipulation but are treated the same in every other way; Ex) real drug vs placebo; drug vs active placebo; drug vs no drug Blinding : keeping participants and experimenter (if double-blind) in the dark about the manipulation; avoids expectation or placebo effects and experimenter effects Clever Hans - A horse that was claimed to have been able to perform arithmetic and other intellectual tasks - Upon further investigation, it was discovered that the horse did not in fact have any special intellectual abilities, but simply watching the reactions of his trainer Statistics: Using mathematical procedures to organize, summarize, and interpret data; - Descriptive Statistics: organizing and summarizing data; measures of central tendency: mean, median mode; symmetrical or asymmetrical distribution measures of dispersion: variance and standard deviation - Inferential Statistics: interpreting data Significant testing; the level of statistical significance within a study Weeding out if the data showed a difference due to chance If it’s a very small probability that it was due to chance, then its statistically significant in the difference Convention: 5% or less ( p < 0.05) - Extraneous Variables: variables (other than the independent variable) that can influence the outcome of the experiment; Can cause confounding of variables: when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their effects from one another Random Sampling: selection at random from the target population to get the sample that will participate in your study; this ensures that everyone in the target population has an equal likelihood of being selected for the sample. Random Assignment: assigning participants randomly to the experimental groups or conditions; this ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being in and group or condition in the study. Order Effects: The order in which subjects receive the experimental treatments can affect how they respond to those treatment. Counterbalancing: Vary the order of conditions across participants or groups. Generalizability: what we can generalize from our study: A larger population, other contexts, other age groups, there cultures.

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Ethics of Studying Humans: - Informed Consent: the doctrine that anyone who participates in human research must do so voluntarily and must know enough about the study to make an intelligent decision about whether to take part.

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