Type of employment it could be that beauty has only

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Type of employment: It could be that Beauty has only been appointed on a contract basis while John has been appointed on a permanent basis. Permanent employees, in general, earn higher salaries than temporary or part-time employees. Discrimination: Although illegal, it still happens that men, due to discrimination, earn higher salaries than women. For example, it could be that John = s supervisor favours him when performance evaluations and merit increases are done. Some organisations have not yet managed to eliminate the earning gaps that might still exist due to discrimination in the past. QUESTION 4.2 (1) Factors responsible for the earnings gap between men and women and whites and blacks (10) The following are the most important reasons for the differences in earnings between men and women and whites and blacks. Differences in job levels Because women entered the labour market only recently, most senior positions are occupied by white men and therefore women and blacks are employed in lower-level jobs, which pay lower salaries. Differences in personal work-related characteristics # Experience and seniority Because women and blacks entered the labour market only recently, as stated above, they do not have the same extent of experience and seniority as their male counterparts, and therefore they earn lower salaries.
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MNH306-K/101 17 # Qualifications The qualifications of women and blacks have historically been lower than those of men, and therefore women and blacks earn lower salaries. This trend is changing, however, and lately an equal number of men and women are obtaining tertiary qualifications. # Age Because men dominated the labour market in the past and women and blacks joined the labour market only recently, the labour market consists mainly of older men and younger women. This led to men earning higher salaries than women and blacks. Differences among industries and firms Industries and firms employing higher percentages of men tend to pay a higher average wage, and therefore the salaries of women employed by organisations, with predominantly female employees are noticeably lower than those of men. Differences in compensation among different industries and firms for the same work done can also be attributed to the compensation policy and size of the organisation. Differences in trade-union membership Trade-union membership also affects compensation levels. In the past it was mainly men who belonged to trade unions, and since the salaries of trade-union members tend to be higher than those of nonunion members, men = s salaries are higher than those of women. The establishment and recognition of trade unions have played a dominant role only recently and therefore it is only now that the earnings gap between whites and blacks can be addressed.
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