Attributing our successes to ourselves and our failures to external factors

Attributing our successes to ourselves and our

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Attributing our successes to ourselves and our failures to external factors. Success = our own doing, Failure = others faultFundamental Attribution Error-Our tendency to underestimate the impact of external factors and overestimate the impact of internal factors in explaining other people’s behavior.Defensive Attributions-Explanations for negative outcomes, such as tragic events, that help us to avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality. Organizational Fairness- Employees perceptions of organizational events, policies, and practices as being fair or not fair. Distributive Fairness- Refers to the perceived fairness of the outcome received, including resource distributions, promotions, hiring and layoff decisions, and raises. “Did we get what we wanted?”Procedural Fairness-Addresses the fairness of the procedures used to generate the outcome. “Were the procedures used in making the decision fair?”Interactional Fairness-Whether the amount of information about the decision and the process was adequate, and the perceived fairness of the Page 7 of 22
interpersonal treatment and explanations received during the decision-making process. “Were we treated with respect (interpersonal fairness) and given adequate and timely information (informational fairness) during the decision making process?”Interpersonal Fairness-The degree to which people are treated with politeness, dignity, and respect by authorities or third parties involved in executing procedures or determining outcomes. Appropriate interpersonal treatment.Informational Fairness-The extent to which employees receive adequate information and explanations about decision affecting their working lives. Adequate information.Psychological Contracts-Informal contract that refers to employers and employee expectations of the employment relationship, including mutual obligations, values, and expectations that operate over and above the formal contract of employment. Can include expectations of financial rewards, performance based pay, career advancement, and job stability. Motivation-The intensity of a person’s desire to begin or continue engaging in the pursuit of a goal.CharacteristicsoWork can be motivating because it is interesting, challenging, allows for the development of new skills, provides a needed benefit, etc. Theory X-Belief that most people dislike work and will try to avoid it whenever possible. Generally negative view. Managers assume that workers have little ambition, and will avoid work. With this theory managers use threats to try to get people to work. Theory Y- Belief that people can enjoy responsibility and work, and are able to make good decisions and exercise self-direction. Generally positive view. Managers here motivate their employees by giving them opportunities to develop their skills.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs-Maslow proposed that once one need in the hierarchy is satisfied, it ceases to motivate behavior and the need at the next level up the hierarchy becomes our motivation. Self actualization -> esteem -> love and belonging -> safety needs -> physiological needsPage 8 of 22

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