Public research institutes Project based funding Applied research development

Public research institutes project based funding

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Public research institutes Project-based funding Applied research/ development Defence oriented Indirect funding (tax reliefs) Thematic research Public research Public research Business R&D Balance 50/50 0/100 100/0 75/25 25/75 Panel 2. Structural composition of BERD, 2011 Panel 3. Revealed technology advantage in selected fields, 2009-11 As a % of total BERD or sub-parts of BERD Index based on PCT patent applications
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III.9. STI COUNTRY PROFILES: READER’S GUIDE OECD SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY OUTLOOK 2014 © OECD 2014 258 STI country profiles reader’s guide The country profiles (CPs) in the 2014 OECD STI Outlook (STIO) are designed to provide a concise overview of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy and performance in OECD members and selected non-OECD economies. Each country profile is based on information gathered from the country’s response to the OECD STIO policy questionnaires 2012 and 2014, as well as various additional OECD and non-OECD sources. Headings in the country profiles are linked to the STIO policy profiles, which examine the main global STI policy trends across countries. Issues featuring in both the policy and country profiles are: i) innovation policy governance; ii) new sources of growth; iii) new challenges; iv) universities and public research; v) innovation in firms; vi) innovative entrepreneurship; vii) technology transfer and commercialisation; viii) clusters and smart specialisation; ix) globalisation; and x) skills for innovation. The table of key figures presents indicators on the country’s economic performance (labour productivity), environmental performance (green productivity and demand), the size of its R&D system as measured by gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD), the degree of public commitment to S&T as measured by the share of GERD that is publicly financed, and the changes in these indicators over the past five years. In the text, all amounts are given both in USD in purchasing power parities (PPP) of the relevant year (if available) and in national currencies. Panel 1 contains a double figure that sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the country’s STI performance. It uses indicators on the country’s national innovation system and performance with respect to: universities and public research, business R&D and innovation, innovative entrepreneurship, information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet infrastructure, networks, clusters and transfers, and skills for innovation. The dot for each indicator positions the country relative to the OECD median and to the top and bottom five OECD countries. Non-OECD countries are also compared to the OECD benchmarks, and may fall out of the range indicated in the figure (e.g. below the lowest OECD country). All indicators are normalised (by GDP and population cohorts) to take account of the size of the economy and the relevant population cohorts, and are presented as indices (OECD median = 100) for benchmarking purposes.
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