of distress. Avoidant attachment is when infants are somewhat willing to explore an unfamiliar environment, but do not look at the caregiver when he/she leaves or returns, as if interest is gone. Ambivalent attachment is when infants cannot explore a new place and when their caretaker leaves, they cry. But when he/she comes back and are consoled, they still cry. 16. Jean Piaget ( developmental psych) investigated how children’s thinking changes over time. We develop schemas through assimilation and accommodation. During assimilation, we experience something new and place it with other things in our brain that are similar. In accommodation, we alter an existing schema to include new info. 17.
Chapter 5 18. Sensation is when you detect something, when you’re aware that it is there. Perception is how/when we interpret it. A stimulus is detected by sensory receptors. This detection is sensation. During transduction, the sensory receptors change the stimulus input to signals that the brain can understand. Physical stimulus comes first, then sensation, transduction, and perception. All sensory input is first processed through the thalamus. Chapter 6 19. Learning is a change in behavior resulting from experience. We learn in 3 ways. Non-associative learning takes place when a person learns about one stimulus (info from the outside world) could be sight, smell, or even sound for example. Habituation is a part of this. It is when an individual is exposed to a stimulus for a long time, repeatedly. Sensitization is another form of non-associative learning. It is when an individual is exposed to a stimulus many times and his/her behavioral response increases. Associative learning is learning the relationship between two pieces of information and seeing how they correlate or associate with one another. Classical conditioning is part of this. It is when we learn that a stimulus predicts another stimulus. Operant conditioning is another part of this. It is when we learn that a behavior leads to a certain outcome. Watching others is the last type of learning. Observational learning is when we learn or change a behavior after watching a person engage in that behavior. Modeling is when we imitate a behavior seen in others. Vicarious learning is learning to engage in a behavior or not after seeing others being rewarded or punished for performing a certain action. 20.Taste aversion is sometimes associated with a bad experience. For example, wolves stopped eating shrimp after it started making them ill.
Chapter 7 21.Rise of technology like laptops, computers, and cellphones has made it hard for teachers to keep the attention of students. Students who use more technology do worse in college courses. Technology can be used for productive reasons as well such as note taking. 22. Elaborative Rehearsal is using working memory processes to think about how new info relates to ourselves or our prior knowledge. Involves deeper thinking (semantic, what it means) Maintenance Rehearsal is when we think about something over and over to provide shallow encoding of information. (auditory, how it sounds).
- Spring '10
- Human Biology, Prototype Model