5 general statistic of fi ce statistical yearbook

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5 General Statistic Of fi ce. Statistical Yearbook. Hanoi, 2004. 92 N.H. Nguyen et al.
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2.4 Vietnam s Textile and Garment Industry The textile and garment industry in Vietnam has developed rapidly in recent years and has become a vital activity within the country s economy. In term of total production, it is the second biggest industry in Vietnam (after the oil and gas industry), accounting for 31 % of total industrial products. The production capacity in 2005 increased fi vefold compared to the production capacity of 2000 (Nguyen 2011 ). Exports in 2011 reached $15.8 billion USD, an increase of nearly 38 % compared to 2010. In 2012 and 2013, despite of many challenges in production and business, exports still earned a record US$ 17.15 billion and US$ 19 billion, respectively (Viettrade 2012 ; VNS 2013 ) With a labor force of more than 2 million people working in more than 3,800 companies (TextileWorld 2012 ), Vietnam s textile and garment industry has become one of the strongest players in the global market. It ranks fi fth worldwide in textile and apparel exports. The industry is considered to be a very important producer and exporter. However, it is also one of the most serious polluters. At each of the stages typically required to make a garment product, there are negative environmental impacts, with dyeing and fi nishing having the greatest impact on the environment. Figure 1 schematically sets out the production process and the environmental impacts at each of the stages. There are four main steps in the textile and garment production process: yarn fabrication, fabric production, dyeing and fi nishing, and sewing. SMEs normally operate one or two stages of this process. For example, some companies only produce yarn or fabric; some produce fabric and also provide dyeing services. Only a few large companies in Vietnam operate all four stages of the production process. Currently, raw materials are mainly imported from overseas. About 400,000 mt of cotton is consumed annually, of which 35 % is imported from the United States, 32 % from India, and 19 % from South Africa (TextileWorld 2012 ). Some is Yarn Fabrication Fabric Production Dying and Finishing Garment Manafacture Yarn Fabric Dyed and Finished Fabric Feedstock Energy Water Products Interior Dust Pollution Noise Interior Dust Pollution Noise Water Pollution Severe Water Pollution Air Pollution Interior Solvent Exposure Interior Air Pollution Noise Solid Waste Cumulative Impacts on Environment and Health Energy Dyes Finishing Chemicals Energy Water Energy Fabrication Materials Packaging Materials Fig. 1 The production process and its environmental impacts Environmental Adaptation by Small and Medium Sized Textile 93
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imported from other countries, such as Pakistan, Brazil, Australia, and Indonesia. Materials imported into Vietnam have to comply with the quarantine regulations in Vietnam, including requirements for environmental protection.
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