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Names of the straight chain hydrocarbons methane

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Names of the Straight Chain Hydrocarbons Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane C n H 2n+2 Cycloalkanes are C n H 2n C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H or all CH 2 groups Alkanes as substituents: -ane to -yl Common Alkyl Fragments isopropyl (1-methylethyl) sec-butyl (1-methylpropyl) isobutyl (2-methylpropyl) t-butyl (1,1-dimethyethyl) isopentyl or isoamyl (3-methylbutyl) neopentyl (2,2-dimethylpropyl) t-pentyl or t-amyl (1,1-dimethylpropyl)
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5 Nomenclature Rules for Alkanes 1. Find the longest continuous carbon chain; this designates the parent compound. 2. The position of substituents are designated by numbers; the parent alkane is numbered from one of its two ends. 3. The numbering starts from the end that gives the substituent the lowest number. If two or more substituents are present, the numbering of the parent alkane starts from the end the gives the lowest number. If these are equal, use a second branch point. Nomenclature Rules for Alkanes (cont.) 4. The choice among parent chains of equal length is in favor of the most highly substituted one. 5. If the same substituent occurs two or more times in a molecule, the prefix di- , tri- , tetra-, is used 6. If two different substituents are attached to the parent compound, their sequence in naming follows alphabetical order. There are some details that are somewhat obscure in this last rule.
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6 Draw the Compounds 3- ethyl pentane 2,2,4- trimethyl pentane 1 2 3 4 5 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 1 2 3 4 5 Prefix-Parent-Suffix Where are the substituents? How many carbons? What family? 4-ethyl-5-methyl-octane 2,3-dimethyl-6-(2-methylpropyl)undecane (1-methylpropyl)cyclopentane
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