Ii it was still common to find candidates mistaking

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(ii) It was still common to find candidates mistaking the secretion of insulin to occur only when the blood glucose level increases and the action of insulin being like an enzyme to convert glucose into glycogen. Candidates must make an effort to understand that insulin is continually secreted from the pancreas. The pancreas responds to a rise in blood glucose level by escalating the insulin secretion. Insulin, being a hormone, works by promoting the liver's enzymes to change glucose into glycogen. In addition, some candidates failed to point out the different responses of a healthy person and a diabetic person.
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18 Homeostasis Last update: 2019-12-24 - 31 - CE00109 9. (a) (ii) pancreas…………………………………………………………………………… .... 1 (iv) (1) * glucagon………………………………………………………………………1 (2) Glucagon will stimulate the conversion of glycogen in liver cells to glucose…1 Marker’s Report (a) Satisfactory performance. (ii) Most candidates stated correctly that the pancreas was the defective organ ,but some erroneously mentioned a defective liver or kidney as the cause of diabetes. (iv) Some candidates erroneously stated that glucagons converts or changes liver glycogen into glucose. They probably could not distinguish between the action of hormones and that of enzymes. CE070108b 8. (b) (i) Glucose consumption increases during exercise .................................................................... (1) because glucose is used in respiration/respiration rate is faster ............................................ (1) to provide more energy for muscle contraction ..................................................................... (1) (ii) More glucagons is released during exercise .......................................................................... (1) which stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver .......................................... (1) to restore the blood glucose level/compensate for the increase in glucose consumption ..... (1) Effective Communication (C) ............................................................................................... (1) (iii) Trends: .................................................................................................................................. (1) Increase during exercise ........................................................................................................ (1) Decrease after exercise .......................................................................................................... (1) Total: 8+1 Marker’s Report
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18 Homeostasis Last update: 2019-12-24 - 32 - CE070109b 9. (b) (i) Whole milk has more fat than fat-free milk ............................................................................ (1) Presence of fat slow down the digestion of carbohydrates ................................................... (1) and hence a slower absorption of glucose ............................................................................. (1) (ii) Diabetics cannot lower their blood glucose level if is too high ............................................ (1) Oatmeal has a low GI value/causes a slow rise in blood glucose level ............................... (1) Therefore, oatmeal is better than cornflake ......................................................................... (1) (iii) The overall energy intake should be less than the overall energy expenditure .................... (1) so that the food reserve will be mobilized and used ............................................................ (1) The diet should contain sufficient amount and types of nutrient ........................................ (1) For proper functioning of the body ..................................................................................... (1) Total: 10 Marker’s Report
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18 Homeostasis Last update: 2019-12-24 - 33 - CE080108b (b) (i) Diabetic patients lack insulin/do not have enough insulin in their blood ....................... 1 and hence the lover fails to convert glucose into glycogen for storage .......................... 1 During intense exercise, blood glucose in consumed for muscle activities/more blood glucose is consumed ........................................................................................................ 1 The blood glucose level drops continuously without replenishment from the glycogen stored ............................................................ 1 (ii) (1) It takes time for starchy food to be digested before absorption ......................................... 1 As a result, a small amount of glucose is absorbed gradually ......................................... 1 The fluctuation of blood glucose level is less/blood glucose level will not increase too fast after a normal meal ................................................................................................... 1
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  • Fall '19
  • Blood sugar

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