b. Wilson’s Allied adversaries at Versailles now in a stronger bargaining position D. Completion of treaty a. When Wilson returned to France, delegates had separated the League from the Treaty due to growing unrest in Europe and certain colonial regions.
b. Final signing ceremony at Hall of Mirrors at Versailles on June, 28, 1919 c. Germany had agreed to armistice for a peace based on the 14 Points but now forced to sign a treaty containing only about 4 of the original 14 Points. -- Cries of betrayal swept Germany . d. Wilson forced to compromise away some of less cherished 14 Points in order to salvage League of Nations. E. American reaction 1. Isolationists opposed entanglement and League of Nations (e.g. Republicans) a. Future role of U.S. in Latin America created controversy. b. Anti-German critics charged treaty not harsh enough against Germany. c. Liberals like the New York Nation thought the treaty too harsh. d. German & Italian Americans outraged the treaty unfavorable to their native lands. e. Irish-Americans (many in gov’t) angry it gave Britain too much influence and felt it could force U.S. aid to Britain to crush Irish independence. f. Many blacks angry peace conference dictated fate of former German African colonies without African representation. g. Jews only large group that favored the treaty wholeheartedly. -- Treaty provided for eventual British control of Palestine; Zionists saw this as a step towards Jewish homeland. XI. Defeat of Versailles Treaty (1919) A. Americans initially favored Versailles Treaty with the League of Nations. B. Republicans opposed to treaty 1. Senator Lodge wished to amend; no real hope of defeating it. -- Republicans could then claim political credit for the changes. 2. Lodge opposed treaty as infringement of the Monroe Doctrine 3. Treaty got bogged down in the Senate C. Wilson’s speaking tour, Fall of 1919 1. Wilson feared any senatorial modification to Treaty would encourage Europeans to also make modifications and amend the League out of existence. 2. Wilson decided to appeal over the heads of the Senate to the people by going on an ambitious speechmaking tour . a. Physicians and friends advised Wilson against it as his health was in question.
b. Wilson believed correctly public in favor of Treaty but miscalculated public’s interest in a treaty without modifications: Wilson obsessed with the treaty c. "Irreconcilable" senators Borah & Johnson followed him to each city a few days later with the Republican view; opposed treaty in any form. D. Wilson collapsed in Pueblo, Colorado on September 25, 1919. 1. Several days later, a stroke paralyzed one side of his body. 2. He did not meet his cabinet for 7.5 months. E. Lodge Reservations 1. Lodge unable to amend treaty outright; wrote 14 formal reservations to it. a. Reserved rights of U.S. under the Monroe Doctrine and the Constitution and otherwise sought to protect American sovereignty.
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