Examples of logos • I‘ve not eaten meat for 8 years, and I’m fit and healthy; you can’t argue that vegetarianism is always unhealthy. • We have conducted the experiment 5 times and we get the same results every single time. • That is not my wallet. My wallet has a tear in it • This wallet has no tear in it. Therefore, it cannot be mine. 5
Practice logos For each of the following, explain whether or not you think that logos is being used effectively. Example: “I need new jeans. Everyone in my class has new jeans.” This isn’t an effective use of logos as the reasoning is not logical and convincing. Firstly, it’s highly unlikely that everyone has new jeans (hyperbole). Secondly, just because other people have new jeans, it doesn’t logically follow that the speaker needs them 1. “ All men and women will die. You are a man. Therefore, you will die one day.” Could get more elaborate with stats on deaths of men per year, life expectancy. Logical though. 2. “ Everyone has children. Therefore, everyone needs to think about the schooling of his or her children.” Not everyone has children. Could not want kids, or not be able to have them. Include statistics on graduation rates, success rates. 3. “You don’t need to jump in front of a train to know it’s a bad idea; so why do you need to try drugs to know if they’re damaging?” Include statistics for drug used deaths, pathos, and ethos. Not logical. Subjects aren’t connected. 4.“Cigarette smoke contains over 4,800 chemicals, 69 of which are known to cause cancer. So why start smoking?”
5. “Every morning the rooster crows, then the sun rises. Therefore the rooster causes the sun to rise.” Not logical. Sun would rise without the rooster. Rooster crows because the sun rises. 7
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