What are neutrophils what are their functions the

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carry out different functions in combating foreign substances. What are neutrophils? What are their functions? The chief phagocytic cells of the early inflammatory response What are the age related changes in immunologic function? ● Babies do not have a developed adaptive immune system. They receive much of their initial acquired immunity from their mothers in the form of colostrum during the first few days of breastfeeding and from immunizations. Young children will still lack memory cells, they will reach a certain age and the infections should plateau. ● As adults get older their lymphocyte production slows down, older adults also have less urine being produced and filtered. This leads to increased risk of UTI’s.
Fall 2017 ● as skin ages , it begins to lose elasticity and sub-Q fat, decreasing its strength. Concomitantly, many older adults have nutritional deficits, whether caused by diet or by malabsorption. Deficits in protein, vitamins, and minerals can cause delayed wound healing. ● Decreased mobility also poses a problem as it puts elderly at risk for skin breakdown and venous ulcers. There is also decreased cough reflex leading to increased lung infections and decreased gastric motility leading to infections of the GI tract. Osteoarthritis: Nonsystemic, noninflammatory progressive disorder of movable joints **Changes are associated with increasing age and/or trauma S/S TX Pain & stiffness (especially in the morning) Immobility of the joint or limb due to the pain or joint changes Enlarged and/or nodular joints Crepitation Deformities Heberden's nodules Bouchard's nodules - 2 main goals are to provide comfort & maintain function/mobility Application of heat TENS unit Weight loss Nonpharmacological techniques for pain relief Medications: acetaminophen, meloxicam, cortisone (orally, injections), arthritic rubs If function is completely lost joint replacement surgery would then have to be explored Osteoporosis: Chronic disease in which bone loss causes decreased density & possible fracture **Wrist, hip & vertebral column are the most commonly affected. Patients at risk for Osteoporosis A = alcohol use C = corticosteroid use C = calcium is low E = estrogen is low (especially postmenopausal) S = smoking S = sedentary lifestyle
Fall 2017 S/S - Back pain Constipation Decrease in height accompanied by kyphosis Fractures (forearm, femur, ribs, and spine) Decreased bone mass Tx- Exercise - walking, swimming, and water aerobics are recommended to increase muscle Diet - high in calcium, Vitamin D, fiber, & protein Examples of foods high in calcium : breads cereals, apricots, molasses, milk, dairy products (especially yogurt), spinach, sardines, beans, carrots, asparagus, & collard greens **Avoid alcohol & smoking NOTE: excessive caffeine can cause excretion of calcium through the urine MEDS Biophosphonates (i.e. Fosamax, Boniva, Didronel) Calcium supplements (1000 mg to 1500 mg daily) Vitamin D supplements Estrogen (for post menopausal women) Muscle relaxers NSAIDS for discomfort/pain Interventions Avoid the use of throw rugs, use of appropriate assistive devices; keep areas

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