100%(14)14 out of 14 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 17 - 20 out of 25 pages.
carry out different functions in combating foreign substances.What are neutrophils? What are their functions? The chief phagocytic cells of the early inflammatoryresponseWhat are the age related changes in immunologic function?● Babiesdo not have a developed adaptive immune system. They receive much of their initial acquired immunity from their mothers in the form of colostrum during the first few days of breastfeeding and from immunizations. Young children will still lack memory cells, they will reach a certain age and the infections should plateau.● As adults get oldertheir lymphocyte production slows down, older adults also have less urine being produced and filtered. This leads to increased risk of UTI’s.
Fall 2017● as skin ages, it begins to lose elasticity and sub-Q fat, decreasing its strength. Concomitantly, many older adults have nutritional deficits, whether caused by diet or by malabsorption. Deficits in protein, vitamins, and minerals can cause delayed wound healing.● Decreasedmobility also poses a problem as it puts elderly at risk for skin breakdown and venous ulcers. There is also decreased cough reflex leading to increased lung infections and decreased gastric motility leading to infections of the GI tract.Osteoarthritis:Nonsystemic, noninflammatory progressive disorder of movable joints **Changes are associatedwith increasing age and/or traumaS/STXPain& stiffness (especially in the morning)Immobility of the joint or limb due to the pain or joint changesEnlarged and/or nodular jointsCrepitationDeformitiesHeberden's nodulesBouchard's nodules- 2 main goals are to provide comfort & maintain function/mobilityApplication of heatTENS unitWeight lossNonpharmacological techniques for pain reliefMedications: acetaminophen, meloxicam, cortisone (orally, injections), arthritic rubsIf function is completely lost joint replacement surgery would then have to be exploredOsteoporosis:Chronic disease in which bone loss causes decreased density & possible fracture**Wrist, hip & vertebral column are the most commonly affected.Patients at risk for OsteoporosisA = alcohol useC = corticosteroid useC = calcium is lowE = estrogen is low (especially postmenopausal) S = smokingS = sedentary lifestyle
Fall 2017S/S-Back painConstipationDecrease in height accompanied by kyphosisFractures (forearm, femur, ribs, and spine)Decreased bone massTx-Exercise - walking, swimming, and water aerobics are recommended to increase muscleDiet - high in calcium, Vitamin D, fiber, & proteinExamples of foods high in calcium: breads cereals, apricots, molasses, milk, dairy products (especially yogurt), spinach, sardines, beans, carrots, asparagus, & collard greens**Avoid alcohol & smokingNOTE: excessive caffeine can cause excretion of calcium through the urineMEDSBiophosphonates (i.e. Fosamax, Boniva, Didronel)Calcium supplements (1000 mg to 1500 mg daily) Vitamin D supplementsEstrogen (for post menopausal women)Muscle relaxersNSAIDS for discomfort/painInterventionsAvoid the use of throw rugs, use of appropriate assistive devices; keep areas