Some phonological entities want to be as near the edges of constituents as possible. This is true of stress for instance. Some other entities want to be associated with entities of a different kind as themselves.
Alignment Tones of intonation languages want to be associated with syllables of a certain kind: pitch accents with accented syllables, boundary tones with final syllables. Tones of tone languages want to be assiciated with syllables in a one-to-one fashion. The ideal autosegmental representation is the one in which there is exactly one tone per syllable and one syllable per tone. However, this is not always possible to fulfill.
Alignment Melodies, say HLH or HL, have been shown by Goldsmith, Leben, Williams and others to exist independently of words. And of course, words exist independently of melodies. In a HLH melody, the perfect tone-to-syllable association only obtains in case the word the melody associates with is three syllables long, otherwise there is a conflict between the number of tones and the number of syllables.
Alignment • Usually, tone and syllable association takes place left-to-right on a one-to-one basis until no tone is left. Then the last tone associates with the remaining syllables (spreading). • In a rule format, this kind of association is impossible to describe. • It is thus no accident that the first mainstream nonlinear phonological theory (so-called autosegmental phonology) has been developed first for tone phonology.
Alignment • Syllables and tones are represented on different tiers and association procedes in a certain way (one-to- one, from left-to-right etc.) • However, as in the case of stress, autosegmental representations are not enough. Rules are still necessary to decide how deviant cases of tone association are decided.
Alignment • A famous case is the so-called Meeussens Law: H # H --> H # L (Dissimilation rule) In Shona né#hóvé –> né#hove Iteration from left to right: sé#né#hóvé –> sé ne hóvé *sé ne hove This is a rule, applying on a representation.
Alignment Autosegmental phonology as a mixture of representation and ordered rules was very successful. Its methods were generalized on other domains of phonology, like metrical and segmental phonology.
Alignment Remember the problems that were identified last time w.r.t. ordered rules: - unconstraindedness - duplication - conspiracy The addition of a representational component to phonology was really a progress, because the uncontraindedness was not a concern anymore.
Alignment But no nonlinear model can resolve the problem of duplication or conspiracy. Duplication is probably even more acute in representations than in rules. Conspiracy is not resolved
Conflict Resolution Plan of Today‘s Presentation 1. Discuss conflict resolution as rule ordering 2. Introduce types of conflicts 3. Discuss the disguised conflict resolution component of the GB- theory 4. Discuss the conflict resolution in the MP
Conflicts in Syntax As we will see, the distinction between markedness, faithfulness, and alignment constraints can be made in syntax, too.
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