Dont Exaggerate Madison or Haidt Madison F proposed a

Dont exaggerate madison or haidt madison f proposed a

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Don’t Exaggerate Madison or Haidt Madison (Federalist 10, 57) proposed a constitutional design intended “to refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens” [representative democracy]. And to keep those representatives wise and virtuous by limited terms of office and frequently subject to reelection so as to “maintain a proper responsibility to the people.” We can recognize the idea of confirmatory thought and its weaknesses, only because we recognize the contrasting idea of exploratory thought and its strengths We can recognize biases and distortions only because we can conceive of unbiased and undistorted thought and communication Mechanisms of public accountability, in science, ethics, and politics, can incentivize more fair and accurate thought and action 11 John Rawls: Well-Informed People of Good Will Have Different Ideologies “It is unrealistic – or worse, it arouses mutual suspicion and hostility – to suppose that all our differences are rooted solely in ignorance and perversity, or else in the rivalries for power, status, or economic gain.” 12
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11/17/19 4 John Rawls: “Burdens of Judgment” a. The empirical and scientific evidence relevant to the case is conflicting and complex , and thus hard to assess and evaluate. b. Even where we agree fully about the kinds of consideration s that are relevant, we may disagree about their weigh t, and so arrive at different judgments. c. To some extent all our concepts , and not only moral and political concepts, are vague and subject to hard cases; and this indeterminacy means that we must rely on judgment and interpretation within some range where reasonable persons may differ . d. To some extent the way we assess evidence and weigh moral and political values is shaped by our total experience, our whole course of life up to now; and our total experiences must always differ . 13 “Burdens of Judgment” Thus, in a modern society with its numerous offices and positions, its various divisions of labor, its many social groups and their ethnic variety, citizens' total experiences are disparate enough for their judgments to diverge , at least to some degree, on many if not most cases of any significant complexity e. Often there are different kinds of normative considerations of different force on both sides of an issue and it is difficult to make an overall assessment. f. Any system of social institutions is limited in the values it can admit so that some selection must be made from the full range of moral and political values that might be realized. In being forced to select among cherished value s, or when we hold to several and must restrict each in view of the requirements of the others, we face great difficulties in setting priorities and making adjustments. Many hard decisions may seem to have no clear answer .
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