Scientists inventors and others devoted to improving farming methods and

Scientists inventors and others devoted to improving

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Scientists, inventors and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to be engaged in agriculture. Agriculture - origins Approximately 11,000 years ago, the climatic conditions fundamentally changed in many regions of the world such as: Temperature increased and altered precipitation patterns which led to changes in vegetation. Forests became established in Central Europe and some other regions, replacing the treeless tundra or steppe that existed during the ice age. Distinct changes in the distribution of different vegetation zones also occurred in many regions of the tropics and subtropics. Most of the large animal species that existed in the ice age environments of Europe, North America, and parts of Asia became extinct. In various regions of the world, the origin of agriculture dates back 11,000 10,000 years ago, during a phase in the climate that was accompanied by fundamental changes in the living conditions of organisms, including humans. The transition from hunting and gathering to farming can be explained from these two hypotheses; 1. Agriculture is an innovation that enabled a way of life that is advantageous compared with the hunter-gatherer existence. Some groups of humans discovered the potential of producing plants in fields, whereby these earliest farmers not only acquired a secure source of food, but also became sedentary. This also initiated cultural progress and, overall, a higher standard of living. Such groups served as examples for the hunter-and-gatherer groups, which subsequently also began to practice agriculture. 2. A shortage of food resources (primarily the lack of wild animals for the hunters) was the pre-condition for the development of agriculture. Reasons for this include an increase in human population density in combination with decreases in big-game species because of overhunting. According to this view, the transition to agriculture was not a voluntary act, but rather occurred as a result of the need to find alternative sources of food. By no means does this
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Unit 1: Introduction origins, terminologies and importance 1.6 have advantages over hunting and gathering, but is more labour and time- intensive and is, in addition, associated with the risk of crop failures and thus with hunger. All living beings find in the environment the resources necessary for their material existence: space, habitat, food, and the possibility to throw away waste materials derived from their life functions. Resources in any given environment are limited. In certain environments, a particular limiting factor for the development of a species (temperature, rainfall, food) can be found below a threshold of minimum tolerance or above a threshold of maximum tolerance, on the basis of which the development of this species becomes impossible. The level of this threshold varies according to species and their tolerance with respect to characteristics of the environment. The higher animals, humans, and certain domestic animals in particular, are very tolerant in relation to their environment. Their capacity to populate varied environments, that is, their ecological valence, is higher and their area of geographical extension is vast. On
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