• Initiate cultural assessment of the individual, com- munity, or population with appropriate interventions to minimize health inequities. Take care not to display judgmental and inappropriate action. Cross- cultural communication skills are essential. • Promote training of health-care providers to develop culturally sensitive and empathetic communication skills. • Increase the diversity of the health-care staff. • Work with national nursing organizations to support the education of minority students.• Make sure patients receive equitable health-care services.• Take on the role of the patient advocate. One must be careful not to be paternalistic, but rather to be helpful in assisting and working together with individuals, families, and communityto obtain appropriate and adequate health care.• Always use a translator when the patient has a different language and is not fluent in English. Use a trained translator; if one is not available within your agency, access other resources such as phone-based translators.• Recognize that nurses and other care providers are discriminatory. Everyone needs to take the time to examine his or her own behavior, and make certain that when working with individuals, families, and communities people are not treated differently be- cause of their race, religion, gender, appearance, or economic level. The actions may be very subtle, and we may not be consciously aware of them without continuous self-examination.
Page 7of 159.Currents trends in treatment of substance use10.Psychosocial consequences of use11.Models to reduce substance use12.Burden of diseasethe economic and social burdens affect both individuals and governments in terms of the cost of care, lost work, and burial expenses.13.a) TB b)leprosy “Neglected disease” As another example, in 2012, there were more than 182,000 cases of leprosy.c) osteoporosis d)Chagas disease e) obesityf)HIVAIDS HIV impairs and destroys the immune cells in the infected person’s body, affecting the ability to fight off infection. A person infected with HIV may not develop AIDS until 10 to 15 years after the initial infection. AIDS is diagnosed when a person infected with HIV develops cancer, infections, or other clinical symptoms associated with HIV infection. HIV has killed 25 millionthe prevalence of HIV and AIDS is higher among persons in the 25- to 44-year-old age group, those who are African American and Hispanic, and in men. Racial disparity is especially apparent in children, with 80% of all pediatric cases being African American or Hispanic. HIV infection is also on the rise among older adults. Certain behaviors increase the risk for transmission of HIV, including men having sex with men, those engaging in injection drug use, and those engaging in unprotected sex. There is also variation in the distribution of cases geographically, with the majority of cases (55%) coming from New York, California, Florida, Texas, and New Jersey.17 Prevalence is also growing in the older population because of increased longevity of those living with HIV as well as an increase in risky behaviors in this age group.