Determinants of attachment styles • It has been found that both temperament and parenting style interact to determine children’s attachment styles • Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic style and intensity of emotional reactivity . – Some infants have an “easy” temperament; they are happy, relaxed, and calm, with predictable rhythms of needing to eat and sleep. – Some infants seem to be “difficult”; they are irritable, with unpredictable needs and behavior, and intense reactions. • Mary Ainsworth believed that sensitive, responsive, calm parenting is correlated with the secure attachment style. • Monkeys with unresponsive artificial mothers showed anxious insecure attachment. • Training in sensitive responding for parents of temperamentally- difficult children led to doubled rates of secure attachment. Slide 26
Impact of deprivation of attachment • Genetics and biology still play a role in determining the outcome of prolonged deprivation. • Some people’s stress hormone systems seem to be more easily damaged by chronic stress, and some people’s serotonin pathways more easily become inefficient. • If children live without safe, nurturing, affectionate caretaking, they may still be resilient , that is bounce back, attach, and succeed. • However, if the child experiences severe, prolonged deprivation or abuse, he or she may : – have difficulty forming attachments. – have increased anxiety and depression. – have lowered intelligence. – show increased aggression. Slide 27
Self-concept A major task of infancy may be to form healthy attachments. A major task of childhood may be to form a healthy self-concept : a stable and positive understanding of identity . By age 8- 10, a child moves from “that’s me in the mirror” to “I have skills, preferences, and goals”; this prepares the child for confident success. Slide 28
ADOLESCENCE Topic Four Slide 29
Adolescence • This is the period spent transitioning from child to adult — starts with the physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status. • G. Stanley Hall (1904), describe adolescence the tension between biological maturity and social dependence created a period of “storm and stress.” • Adolescence can also be a time of vitality without the cares of adulthood, a time of rewarding friendships, of heightened idealism and a growing sense of life’s exciting possibilities. Slide 30
Sexual maturation • Adolescence begins with puberty: the time of sexual maturation (becoming physically able to reproduce). • During puberty, increased sex hormones lead to: – primary (e.g. reproductive organs and external genitalia) and secondary sex characteristics (breast and hip, facial hair and deepened voice in boys, pubic and underarm hair in both sexes) – some changes in mood and behavior.