25 Determinants of attachment styles It has been found that both temperament

25 determinants of attachment styles it has been

This preview shows page 25 - 32 out of 53 pages.

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Determinants of attachment styles It has been found that both temperament and parenting style interact to determine children’s attachment styles Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic style and intensity of emotional reactivity . Some infants have an “easy” temperament; they are happy, relaxed, and calm, with predictable rhythms of needing to eat and sleep. Some infants seem to be “difficult”; they are irritable, with unpredictable needs and behavior, and intense reactions. Mary Ainsworth believed that sensitive, responsive, calm parenting is correlated with the secure attachment style. Monkeys with unresponsive artificial mothers showed anxious insecure attachment. Training in sensitive responding for parents of temperamentally- difficult children led to doubled rates of secure attachment. Slide 26
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Impact of deprivation of attachment Genetics and biology still play a role in determining the outcome of prolonged deprivation. Some people’s stress hormone systems seem to be more easily damaged by chronic stress, and some people’s serotonin pathways more easily become inefficient. If children live without safe, nurturing, affectionate caretaking, they may still be resilient , that is bounce back, attach, and succeed. However, if the child experiences severe, prolonged deprivation or abuse, he or she may : have difficulty forming attachments. have increased anxiety and depression. have lowered intelligence. show increased aggression. Slide 27
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Self-concept A major task of infancy may be to form healthy attachments. A major task of childhood may be to form a healthy self-concept : a stable and positive understanding of identity . By age 8- 10, a child moves from “that’s me in the mirror” to “I have skills, preferences, and goals”; this prepares the child for confident success. Slide 28
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ADOLESCENCE Topic Four Slide 29
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Adolescence This is the period spent transitioning from child to adult starts with the physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status. G. Stanley Hall (1904), describe adolescence the tension between biological maturity and social dependence created a period of “storm and stress.” Adolescence can also be a time of vitality without the cares of adulthood, a time of rewarding friendships, of heightened idealism and a growing sense of life’s exciting possibilities. Slide 30
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Sexual maturation Adolescence begins with puberty: the time of sexual maturation (becoming physically able to reproduce). During puberty, increased sex hormones lead to: primary (e.g. reproductive organs and external genitalia) and secondary sex characteristics (breast and hip, facial hair and deepened voice in boys, pubic and underarm hair in both sexes) some changes in mood and behavior.
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