-meant to obtain something a child wants Reactive/Hostile -meant to hurt someone else Types of Hostile Aggression Type How the Harm is Caused Physical—Physical injury (Boys display this the most) Verbal—Threats of physical aggression, Name calling., teasing Relational—Social exclusion, Malicious gossip, friendship manipulation (Girls display the most)
Group Activity Pro Spanking Points • Classical Conditioning • Remember it more than saying go to your room • “talking” to children does not let them know the severity of the offense (action behind the taling) • Major offenses deserve more of a consequence Anti Spanking Points • Teaches aggression to the child • Breaks down the parent-child relationship/trust • Children learn more from the “guilt” explanation rather than spanking • Could lead to abuse Punishment in early Childhood Frequent and harsh physical punishment has undesirable y7and negative side effects Alternatives to harsh punishment: • Time out; a minute/age (2 years/2 min) • Withdrawing privileges, • positive discipline Parents can increase effectiveness of punishment: • consistency; with mom, dad, and grandparents • warm parent- child relationship; can cause withdrawal from attachment because parent hits and confuses the child • explanation Positive Punishment • Use transgressions as opportunities to teach. • Reduce opportunities for misbehavior. • Provide reasons for rules. • Have children participate in family duties and routines. • Try compromising and problem solving. • Encourage mature behavior. Prosocial Behavior and Friendships Development of Prosocial Behavior • Evident at 2-3 years of age • Children who show prosocial behaviors are more popular with peers Parental Influences • Loving and warm family climate • Provide prosocial attributions Friendships • Emerges by age 3 • By age 4, more than half of children spend 30% of time with one other child • Become more stable with time • Early friendships related to social competence
Gender Development Gender identity (Age 2) -Child’s ability to label his or her own sex correctly Gender stability (age 4) Understanding that you stay the same gender throughout life True gender constancy (age 5-6) Recognition that someone stays the same gender even through appearance may change 18 months of age gender is specific Sex- Typed Behavior Sex typed behavior develops earlier than ideas about sex roles 18-24 months- children show preferences Physical changes Middle childhood:6-12 years :”school years” Growth & Motor Dvelopment Grow 2-3 inches & add 5 lbs a year I?ncresed large-muscle coordination Better hand- eye coordination Significant gains in fine motor control All permanent teeth arrive
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- Fall '13
- Developmental Psychology, Motor control, child rearing styles