Obligate anaerobes poisoned by o 2 use anaerobic

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Obligate anaerobes : poisoned by O 2 ; use anaerobic respiration or fermentation.
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Oxygen Relationships Early life (during the Archaean) was primarily anaerobic. Evolution of photosynthesis in Cyanobacteria changed all this.
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Taxonomy of Prokaryotes Archaea or Archaebacteria – Methanogens – Halophiles – Thermophiles Bacteria or Eubacteria – Protobacteria – Chlamyidias – Spirochetes – Cyanobacteria Gram-positive bacteria
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Archaea or Archaebacteria Live in extreme environments (extremophiles): sulfur hot springs, deep sea vents, high salt environments. Lack peptidoglycan, unique plasma membrane of liquids
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Archaea or Archaebacteria Methanogens – Produce methane (CH 4 ) during metabolism. – Chemoautotrophs – Anaerobic – In swamps, marshes, deep sea vents, important decomposers.
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Archaea or Archaebacteria Halophiles – Saline environments. – Salinity several times higher than sea water. – Photoheterotrophs
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Archaea or Archaebacteria Thermophiles – 60º-80ºCpH 2-4 optimal – Chemoautotrophs
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Bacteria or Eubacteria Grouped by molecular systematics.
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Bacteria or Eubacteria Proteobacteria VERY diverse, grouped into five taxa based on DNA sequence data. Includes most types of metabolism that we ve discussed. Includes most of the types of symbioses we ve discussed.
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Bacteria or Eubacteria Gram positive Bacteria : Simple peptidoglycan cell wall. Rival Proteobacteria in diversity. Most are free-living decomposers. Some pathogenic (e.g. strains of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
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Bacteria or Eubacteria • Cyanobacteria : – Photoautotrophs – Only prokaryotes with plant-like, O 2 - generating photosynthesis. – Present in freshwater and marine environments. – Often colonial--first steps toward multicellularity?
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Bacteria or Eubacteria • Spirochetes : – Helical – Recall motility: move by means of rotating, internal, flagellum- like filaments. – Free-living and parasitic. – Chemoheterotrophs (like us).
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Bacteria or Eubacteria Chlamydias : ALL are parasites of animals. – Intercellular. Lack peptidoglycan in the cell wall (are they gram- positive or gram- negative?). Most common form of STD in USA (urethritis).
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Prokaryotes: Summary You should now have a good sense of prokaryote biology and diversity. Including roles in metabolism, symbioses, global energy cycles. Important distinguishing characteristics of cell wall, motility, genome, replication. General aspects of their systematics.
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