Such random assignment would ensure that only the difference between school

Such random assignment would ensure that only the

This preview shows page 6 - 9 out of 20 pages.

test scores. Such random assignment would ensure that only the difference between school types, not family or individual characteristics, distinguished the children. In such a scenario, we would indeed be able to say that higher scores resulted directly from superior schooling.
the simplest of which is to artificially control the variables in what is called a regression model. Here, an independent variable of interest (Catholic schools) would be used to predict an outcome variable (high academic achievement). When researchers include control variables (such as income or region) in the model, they factor out the influence of those variables. James Coleman’s famous 1982 study comparing public and Catholic school test scores relied upon 17 control variables that represented family characteristics. His results showed that Catholic schoolstudents scored higher than public school students on standardized tests. Coleman’s paper wasmet with both acclaim, but he was also criticized for claiming too much based on regression analysis – which cannot completely eliminate selection bias. Indeed, other researchers (Noell, 1982) used different methods and found no statistically significant differences in test scores between Catholic school students and public school students.Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP)Feeder school → school or college where many graduates continue their education at another specific school or collegeEstimated impacts on math & reading ; math goes up a lot ! reading a bit too“High expectations, strength of character, highly skilled teachers & leaders, safet & structured environments, KIPP through college”Policy implications → assumed goal (assumed goal: reduced SES differences in attainment”Conventional → better public school fundingInefficient strategy given that this does not influence attainment in such a manner that family background doesALternative 1 → reduce income inequality among parents ;; more efficient strategy ; politically unpalatableAlternative 2: early childhood (birth to pre-k) investments10% return on public investment in Head Start and similar preschool programs for low SES kidsAlternative 3: Adopt Catholic/KIPP school elementsMore politically palatable → effective at improving test scores, still public school funding streams, no need for after school day care
Perry Preschool-- high quality preschool programBlack Kids less likely to be arrested 50+, graduated h.s… did hw, basic achievementLimitations of experiemental designs → many variables cannot be manipulated (randomly assigned) race, gender, age, etc.Many variables of interest shouldn’t be manipulated → family background, schooling, income, occupation, etc.Neighborhood SegregationMobility models → class attainment ; achieved by combination of parent’s status & one’s own efforts & abilities … education attainment & family incomeStrong family background effects on educational attainmentEducation effects on class destination are large…

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture