Klassen and mclaughlin 1996 suggested that improved

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Klassen and McLaughlin ( 1996 ) suggested that improved environmental per- formance could enhance pro fi tability by improving cost ef fi ciency and sales. Lo et al. ( 2012 ) pointed out that an EMS can optimize production procedures and reduce packaging, raw materials, energy and water consumption, and toxins released to the environment. Pollution levels should be monitored and corrective actions should be taken when needed. When applied to the textile and clothing industry, the effective implementation of an EMS should enhance the utilization of fabrics, materials, water, and energy. In some cases, textile fi rms could acquire new environmental technologies, such as fl occulation technology for the treatment of dyeing mill ef fl uent (Vandevivere et al. 1998 ). In addition, an EMS is particularly important for fi rms that export to markets with tight environmental regulatory requirements (Delmas 2002 ). The mainstream textile and clothing sector depends on a change in dominant consumer values, attitudes, and behavior. While consumers often have a positive view of socially and environmental friendly products, these attitudes are rarely transformed into concrete buying and consumption behavior. Moreover, due to nontransparent supply chains, consumers often are unaware of the consequences of their buying behavior and, thus, are unwilling to pay a premium for sustainable product. Communication to consumers has to take into consideration national and cultural differences because knowledge about sustainability varies signi fi cantly (Pedersen and Andersen 2013 ). Perspectives, Drivers, and a Roadmap for Corporate 15
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According to Delmas ( 2001 ), improved environmental performance can enable a fi rm to improve its corporate image and expand its markets, because consumers are increasingly willing to pay higher prices for green products and services. Meyer ( 2001 ), however, stated that the majority of fashion customers are in favor of environmentally friendly clothes when they are sold at the same prices as the conventional ones. It is crucial for consumers to be introduced to a pricing scheme in line with the actual costs of production. Pedersen and Andersen ( 2013 ) pointed out that a large number of brands have recently introduced various take-back systems, repair services, and recycling schemes. Moreover, several companies have built a business on transforming used materials into new products. One example, the Finnish fashion brand Globe Hope has developed competence in turning existing materials (military laundry bags and seat belts) into new fashion products. These innovations are not only good for society but can also be a source of pro fi t, growth, and competitive advantages for companies. Therefore, policymakers play an important role by providing tax breaks for sustainable manufacturing, subsidies for recycling, and lower value-added taxes on sustainable products.
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