Henri Fayol published Administration Industrielle et Generale in 1916 o He divided a manager’s job into five functions: Planning Organizing Command Coordination Control o He developed 14 universal principles of management Division of work Authority Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual interests to the genral interest Remuneration Centralization Scalar chain
Order Equity Stability and tenure of personnel Initiative Esprit de corps - Frederick W. Taylor’s Scientific Management o Developing performance standards on the basis of systematic observations and experimentation Standardization Time and task study – FOCUS Systematic selection and training Pay incentives o Taylor’s followers – Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Refined time and motion study methods for use in work study methods for use in work simplication Cheaper by the Dozen Fatigue Studies Ergonomics - W. Edwards Deming based his 14 principles on reformed management style, employee participation, and striving for continuous improvement o Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services o Adopt the new philosophy o Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality o End the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier o Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production, and service o Institute training on the job o Adopt and institute leadership o Drive out fear o Break down barriers between staff areas o Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce o Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management o Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or merit system o Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone o Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation Chapter 3 - Demographics of the New Workforce o Larger o Female
o Racially/ethnically diverse o Older o Age diverse - America’s education and workplace skills crisis o To compete in a global labor market, u.s. workers need a constantly improving, world-class education – but American kids aren’t getting one o Problems start early and persist throughout the education process o Mismatched skills versus needed skills o No more “on-the-job: readiness training - Managing diversity – the process of creating an organizational culture that provides all employees, including women and minorities, with assistance and opportunities to help them realize their full potential o This is increasingly important as the united states becomes even more racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse Chapter 4 -
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