LIN200 Week 15 Day 2+ - final exam review

American sign language asl is an autonomous

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American Sign Language (ASL) is an autonomous linguistic system, not a different way of producing English. It is a natural, full-fledged language capable of expressing complex, abstract thoughts. ASL (like other sign languages) can be acquired naturally by deaf children if they receive ASL input from their parents or caregivers.
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Deaf educational philosophies Manualism Belief in teaching students to sign, but often based on the spoken vernacular. As a result, various sign systems came and went, taking a generation of deaf students each time. E.g. SEE (Signed Exact English), MCE (Manually Coded English), Cued Speech, and Signed English. Oralism Forcing the Deaf to read lips and rely on what residual hearing have to learn to speak. Deaf children were punished for using ASL.
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Sociolinguistic Variation in ASL The sign for “Deaf” in Boston moves from the ear to the chin. In Kansas it’s from the chin to the ear. Signers from the south often use the sign for supper, a fist on the chin, while up north here we use dinner, a ‘D’ on the mouth or even the compound EAT+NIGHT. Southern signers use sign for backyard, which resembles our northern version for COACH/BOSS
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Sociolinguistic Variation in ASL Ethnolects : the black deaf community has its own dialect (different signs for different words; larger signing space). Register shifting: formal lectures- slower, larger signing space. Informal signing: less rigid space, one-handed, lots of overlap
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Cochlear Implants An implant does not restore normal hearing. Instead, it can give a deaf person a useful representation of sounds in the environment and help him or her to understand speech.
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Social varieties and issues
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What is a sociolect? Social dialects or sociolects are speech varieties that characterize people with different social characteristics Language variation can be based on any social factor (age, gender, social class, ethnicity, etc.), but social classes and ethnic groups are most likely to be described as having sociolects.
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What are the Consensus and conflict models of social class? Who decides who is part of what class? Do people from the bottom and the top of the hierarchy agree about this? Does everyone view an increase in social status as desirable? Do people who speak the vernacular value the standard?
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What is Language crossing? Chun points out that speakers outside of the African American speech community who use AAVE are not generally using it because they want to be Black, but because they want to index social factors that are associated with Black culture. - heterosexual masculinity - resistance against mainstream White culture
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What is Chicano English? Chicano English is a dialect of English spoken mainly by people of Mexican descent in the US Other people of Latin American background may speak Chicano English or other dialects with similar features Speakers of Chicano English sometimes speak Spanish However, not all of them do! Many speakers of Chicano English are monolingual English speakers.
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Is Chicano English like Spanish?
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