Phospholipids Glycerol backbone Two fatty acid tails hydrophobic Phosphate

Phospholipids glycerol backbone two fatty acid tails

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Phospholipids Glycerol backbone Two fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) Phosphate-containing head (hydrophilic) Main materials of cell membranes
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Sterols Sterols No fatty acid tails Four carbon rings In eukaryotic cell membranes Cholesterol in animals tissues Vitamin D Steroids (hormones) Bile salts
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Waxes Long-chained fatty acids linked to alcohols or carbon rings Cover plant parts Help conserve water Fend off parasites Animals Protect Lubricate Impart pliability to skin and hair Repel water
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Amino Acids and the Primary Structure of Proteins Proteins Enzymes Structures Transport Nutritious Hormones Immune system Proteins are made from a pool of 20 amino acids
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Structure of Amino Acids Central carbon atom An amino group A carboxyl group A hydrogen atom One or more atoms “R Group”
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Structural Formulas for Some Amino Acids
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Structural Formulas for Some Amino Acids
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Peptide Bond Formation A type of condensation reaction
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Second Level of Protein Structure Hydrogen bonds Helical coiling Sheet-like pattern
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Third Level of Protein Structure Additional folding of secondary structure R Group interactions Hydrogen bonds Disulfide bridges
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Fourth Level of Protein Structure Two or more polypeptide chains joined by Weak bonds (Hydrogen bonds) Covalent bonds between sulfur atoms and R groups Collagen Keratin Hemoglobin
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Structure of Hair Keratin Fibrous structural protein
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Structural Changes by Denaturation Disruption of three-dimensional shape of protein Changes in temperature and pH Loss of function Some proteins have organic compounds attached Glycoproteins - proteins with oligosaccharides covalently bonded Lipoproteins - molecules formed when proteins circulating in blood combine
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