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Rewards for employees leading for choice empower

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4 sets of behaviours managers can use to build Intr. rewards for employees: Leading for Choice (empower employees, delegate tasks) Leading for Competence (support, coach employees)
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P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE Leading for Meaningfulness (inspire employee, model desired behaviours) Leading for Progress (monitor, reward employees) MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES THROUGH REINFORCEMENT operant conditioning = desired voluntary behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a punishment (Skinner) - pleasing consequences to follow certain behaviours → inc. frequency of behaviour - rewards are most effective when they immediately follow the desired behaviour - if a behaviour is not +vely reinforced, probability of that behaviour repeating↓ Methods of Shaping Behaviour positive reinforcement = following a response w/ sth pleasant e.g. manager praises employee for job well done negative reinforcement = following a response by termination/withdrawal of sth unpleasant e.g. instructor asks a question and student looks thru her lecture notes to avoid being called on punishment = causing unpleasant condition to eliminate undesirable behaviour e.g. manager gives employee a 2-day suspension from work w/o pay for showing up drunk extinction = eliminating any reinforcement that’s maintaining a behaviour e.g. instructor ignores students who raise their hands to ask questions. hand-raising becomes extinct. Schedules of Reinforcement continuous reinforcement = desired behaviour is reinforced each & every time it’s demonstrated intermittent reinforcement = desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating, but not every time it’s demonstrated - promote more resistance to extinction → Ratio Schedules: depend on how many responses made reinforced after giving a certain # of a certain behaviour → Interval Schedules: depend on how much time has passed since the previous reinforcement reinforced on 1 st appropriate behavior after a particular time has elapsed Reinforcement Schedule Nature of Reinforcement Effect on Behaviour e.g. Continuous Reward given after each desired behaviour Fast learning of new behaviour Rapid extinction compliments Fixed -Interval Reward given at fixed time intervals Average, irregular performance Rapid extinction weekly paycheques Variable -Interval Reward given at variable time intervals Moderately high, stable performance Slow extinction pop quizzes Fixed -Ratio Reward given at fixed amounts of output High, stable performance attained quickly; Rapid extinction piece-rate pay Variable -Ratio Reward given at variable amounts of output Very high performance Slow extinction commission ed sales - managers can reinforce each successive step hat moves one closer to desired response
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