Female Reproductive System study guide.docx

Lobules within lobes contain glandular alveoli that

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Lobules within lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk 12. Outline the process of oogenesis. Note the timing of each stage and whether the resulting cell is diploid or haploid. If fertilization does not occur, cells degenerate If a sperm penetrates secondary oocyte, meiosis II resumes Secondary oocyte splits into 2 cells of unequal size – second polar body (also discarded) and ovum or mature egg Nuclei of sperm cell and ovum unite to form diploid zygote 13. Describe the phases of the ovarian cycle and the hormonal control of each phase. a. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) i. Secreted by hypothalamus controls ovarian and uterine cycle ii. Stimulates release of follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary b. FSH (anterior pituitary)
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i. Initiate follicular growth ii. Stimulate ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens c. LH (anterior pituitary) i. Stimulates further development of ovarian follicles ii. Stimulate ovarian follicles to secrete estrogens iii. Stimulates thecal cells of developing follicle to produce androgens to be converted into estrogens iv. Triggers ovulation v. Promotes formation of corpus luteum – produces estrogens, progesterone, relaxin and inhibin d. Estrogens secreted by ovarian follicles i. Promote development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics ii. Increases protein anabolism including building strong bones iii. Lowers blood cholesterol iv. Inhibit release of GnRH, LH and FSH e. Progesterone i. Secreted mainly by corpus luteum ii. Works with estrogens to prepare and maintin endometrium for implantation and mammary glands for milk production iii. Inhibits secretion of GnRH and LH f. Relaxin i. Produced by corpus luteum ii. Relaxes uterus by inhibiting contraction of myometrium iii. At end of pregnancy, increases flexibility of pubic symphysis and dilates uterine cervix g. Inhibin i. Secreted by granulosa cells of growing follicles and by corpus luteum ii. Inhibits secretion of FSH and LH
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14. What is menarche?
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