When it comes down to it an oscilloscope and a

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When it comes down to it, an oscilloscope and a multimeter can be your best friend for debugging.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 55 Device Drivers Device Any peripheral such as a graphics display, disk driver, terminal, or printer is a device. A device is usually considered to be a piece of hardware that you can connect to your computer system and that you wish to manipulate by sending commands and data.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 56 Device Drivers Three Classes of Device Character Devices ex: Key board, mouse, monitor, printer, Tape, etc., Block Devices Ex: CD-ROM, floppy, Hard disk, etc., Network Interfaces ex: Ethernet card, etc.,
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SUSHMA RAWAL 57 Device Drivers The OS interacts with devices through a program known as “Device Driver” A device driver is a specific type of computer software developed to allow interaction with hardware devices. Typically this constitutes an interface for communicating with the device, through the specific computer bus or communications subsystem that the hardware is connected to, providing commands to and/or receiving data from the device, and on the other end, the requisite interfaces to the operating system and software applications
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SUSHMA RAWAL 58 Device Drivers Structure of Device Driver is OS specific Some RTOS allow device drivers to be installed and removed dynamically. Statically linked driver , whose object code is linked with the kernel. The code of such device driver is physically contained in the kernel and therefore loaded in memory when the system boots. Dynamically linked driver , whose object code is NOT linked with the kernel. The code of such device driver is NOT contained in the kernel, and the device driver is loaded and unloaded as and when required.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 59 Real time in operating systems “The ability of the operating system to provide a required level of service in a bounded response time.”
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SUSHMA RAWAL 60 Characteristics of an Embedded OS Small footprint Memory Resident: size is important consideration – Data structure optimized – Kernel optimized and usually in assembly language Modular & extendible Provide efficient methods for resource management Real-time scheduling tight-coupled scheduler and interrupts Power management capabilities
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SUSHMA RAWAL 61 Who are the Embedded OS players Wind River Systems – VxWorks – pSOS Mentor Graphics – Nucleus Palm Computing – PalmOS Symbian – SymbianOS
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SUSHMA RAWAL 62 Challenges in embedded system design How much hardware do we need? How big is the CPU? Memory? How do we meet our deadlines? Faster hardware or cleverer software? How do we minimize power? Turn off unnecessary logic? Reduce memory accesses?
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