x Free Association: Method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is asked to relax, clear his or her mind of current thoughts, and find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, and feelings that come to mind. x Dream Analysis: Evaluation of the underlying meaning of dream content. aw dreams as gate-ways to the un-con-scious. Freud believed what we recall from a dream is a symbol of the dream’s true mean-ing. Æ Freud’s controversial theories have received plenty of criticism. Based on a lim-ited set of pa-tients, his con-clu-sions were bi-ased by his own in-ter-pre-ta-tions. Sum-ma-rize the hu-man-is-tic ap-proach to the study of per-son-al-ity and the con-tri-bu-tions of Maslow and Rogers in stark con-trast to the psy-cho-dy-namic per-spec-tives that em-pha-size the im-por-tance of sex and ag-gres-sion as un-con-scious mo-ti-va-tors, the humanistic perspectives of personality emphasize people’s con-scious un-der-stand-ing of them-selves and their ca-pac-ity to choose their own paths to self-ful-fill-ment. In-deed, the hu-man-is-tic ap-proach was partly de-vel-oped in re-ac-tion to the pop-u-lar-ity sur-round-ing Freudian the-ory; it was in-tended to out-line how healthy peo-ple de-velop through life, as op-posed to how ab-nor-mal be-hav-iours man-i-fest along the way. Æ focus on aspects of human nature that separate us from other animals, such as our ability to create belief systems and to develop meaningful stories about ourselves and the world around us. Æ Phenomenological Reality:How each individual views his or her own world. Hu-man-is-tic the-o-rists be-lieve that to un-der-stand how peo-ple react to oth-ers and the sit-u-a-tions around them, we must have some in-sight into their in-ter-pre-ta-tion of re-al-ity. Æ Carl Rogers and Abra-ham Maslow are two of the most in-flu-en-tial hu-man-is-tic the-o-rists. Rogers con-cluded that the self- concept, a person’s understanding of who he or she is, plays a cru-cial role in shap-in g one’s find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
phe-nom-e-no-log-i-cal re-al-ity. He found that many peo-ple were striv-ing to dis-cover or be-come their real selves. How-ever, they often were dis-tracted by the judg-ments and de-mands that oth-ers placed on them and, thus, were un-able to achieve a sense of ful-fill-ment. Rogers thought that if others aren’t happy with us, we can’t be happy with ourselves. Based on these ob-ser-va-tions, he pro-posed that to be-come their true selves, peo-ple need to re-ceive un-con-di-tional pos-i-tive re-gard , or an at-ti-tude of total ac-cep-tance, from oth-ers. Æ Unconditional Positive Regard: Therapeutic approach that a person's worth as a human being does not depend on anything that he or she does, says, feels, or thinks.Rogers de-vel-oped much of his the-ory through client- cen-tered in-ter-views in which the client, not the ther-a-pist, di-rected the dis-cus-sion. His goal was to help peo-ple re-move ob-sta-cles block-ing
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