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Acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory. Regulates mood, affects sexual and aggressive behavior and stimulates parasympathetic nervous system Acetycholinesterase ( AChE) inhibitors such as donepezil( Aricept), galantamine ( Razadyne), and rivastigmine ( Exelon) are prescribed to delay cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s
Acetylcholine decreases in Alzheimer’s diseases, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s diseasesAcetylcholine increases in depression Implicated in more Alzheimer’s disease Serotonin The monoamine serotonin , found in the brain and spinal cord helps regulate mood, arousal, attention, behavior , and body temperature Serotonin released by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis Symptoms of high serotonin levels range from mild restlessness, shivering, and diarrhea to severemuscle rigidity, fever, and seizures. Serotonin increases in anxiety states Serotonin decreases in depression Gamma –amino –butyric acid (GABA) The major inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA modulates neuronal excitability and is associated with the regulation of anxiety. Inhibitory neurotransmitter reduces anxiety, excitation, and aggression. May play a role in pain perception and has anticonvulsant and muscle relaxing properties. May impair cognition and psychomotor functioning. GABA increases with the reduction of anxiety GABA decreases with mania , anxiety, schizophrenia GABA is more implicated in anxiety Norepinephrine Neurons that release the monoamine norepinephrine are called noradrenergic. NE and serotonin play a major role in regulating mood. A deficiency of one or both of these within the limbic system is thought to underlie depression, whereas an excess has been associated with mania. Norepinephrine functions to regulate mood, attention and arousal. Stimulates the sympathetic branch of autonomic nervous system for fight or flight in response to stressNorepinephrine increases in mania , anxiety, and schizophrenia Norepinephrine decreases in depressionNorepinephrine and serotonin is more implicated in mood disorders ( depression) THERAPUTIC MODELS Milieu therapy: therapeutic community that is designed to foster highest level of functionGroup therapy: utilizes group dynamics to achieve therapeutic goals Family therapy: works with family to develop healthier relationships
Behavior therapy: uses principles of stimulus- response conditioning to reinforce healthy behaviors and extinguish unhealthyCognitive therapy: interventions focus on changing perceptions, thoughts, and beliefs to bring about healthier behaviors and feelingsPsychoanalytical theory: concepts such as conscious , unconscious, id, ego , superego, defense mechanisms and transference are integrated into practice Psychopharmacology and ECT are biologically based interventions.