Differences are in part in biology but seek

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● Differences are in part in biology but seek distinctions of gender in practice Language as a way in which we construct social categories ● Gender happens, something we do, enact ● Gender is an emergence category, exist in real time, seen in conversation, writing, speaking practices, dress (Sign related behavior) ● Kuipers- men have greater authority in speech ● Mens speech patterns tied to ancestral system Women tied into the emotional life, more improvised Universal asymmetry between women and men speech ● Domination: men likely to interrupt, women encourages ● Male power is enforced through language? (EXAM QUESTION) Contextual model of domination: phone sex workers uses conversational resources to paid bills, women feel like the work allows them more freedom to control their own lives Performance allows them to be in control Hall- Lip Service Layoff identifies women’s language as culturally subordinate Layoff views female language as powerless, but Hall argues that it is empowering notion of “sweet talk” is more associated with speech patterns of females over males underscores the ideological connection between women’s language and sexual language the female ‘sweet-talker’ projects a certain sexual availability to her male listener it is a discursive style “the social relation between the sexes is organized so that men may dominate and women must submit. This relation is sexual-in fact, is sex” McKinnon, 1987
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