Types of antigens toxins and other secretions and

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Types of antigens: _________ _______: Toxins and other secretions and components of microbial cell walls , membranes, flagella and pili. _________ ______: Microbes that reproduce inside infected cells produce endogenous antigens. Can only be seen by the immune system if incorporated into the host cell’s plasma membrane. _____ __________: aka “self- antigens”. Antigen molecules found on an individuals normal, uninfected cells. (i.e. nametags saying “I am part of the body.”) Antigen Ig Epitope Third Line of Defense From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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_________ Also called immunoglobulins (Ig). Protein aceous molecules that bind ________ at the antigen- binding site. Considered part of the humoral immune response since bodily fluids such as lymph and blood were once called humors. Images: Antibody , Fvasconcellos Third Line of Defense From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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How Antibodies Work Some act as opsonins , ________ to identify antigens for phagocytes and stimulate phagoctosis. Some work as __________ (i.e. they neutralize toxins for e.g. those causing diphtheria and tetanus). Some attach to bacterial flagella making them less active and easier for phagocytes to engulf. Some cause ______________ (clumping together) of bacteria making them less likely to spread Q: But where do antibodies come from? Image: Antigen antibody complex , Dr. Sanderson Immunology Page; Opsoni n, Graham Colm Third Line of Defense From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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___________ System Screens tissues of the body for foreign antigens. Composed of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic cells. One-way system that conducts lymph from local tissues and returns it to the circulatory system. Lymph is a liquid with similar composition to blood plasma. Comes from fluid leaked from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Lymph nodes house white blood cells called __________ that recognize and attack foreign antigens present in lymph. Image: Lymphatic system ; The Emirr Third Line of Defense From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Lymphocytes WBCs of specific immunity. The smallest leukocytes . Have huge nucleus surrounded by thin rim of cytoplasm. Produced from blood stem cells in the red bone marrow. Two main types: ________ mature in bone marrow, then concentrate in lymph nodes & spleen. ________ mature in thymus. B and T cells mature then circulate in the blood and lymph. Circulation ensures they come into contact with pathogens and each other. B cells are a type of Antigen Presenting Cell. Image: Lymphocyte SEM; Dr. Triche National Cancer Institute; Lymphocyte, Nicolas Grandjean Third Line of Defense From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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What Is an Antigen Presenting Cell?
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