Antibiotic resistance iii transferred to daughter

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antibiotic resistance iii.Transferred to daughter cells during division b.Chromosome: contain essential genes iii.Transduction: requires a virus find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
1.Virus infects bacterial cell; spreads its own DNA into the cell 2.BaĐterial Đell splits, propagating the ǀirus’ genes3.Virus (phage) separates, taking bacterial DNA 4.Phage infects new (or the same) species of bacteria, transferring both their own and the original ďaĐteria’s genes, and the ĐLJĐle Đontinues b.Vertical intergenerational IV.Structure a.Gram (+) bacteria i.Thick layer of peptidoglycan b.Gram (-) bacteria i.More complex cell walls ii.Thin layer of peptidoglycan iii.Contain lipopolysaccharides (LPS) phospholipid bilayer 1.LPS = endotoxins find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
02-03-2017 BIOL 110 Lecture 11: Protists I I.What are protists?a.Eukaryotes i.Membrane bound organelles + nucleus b.Mostly unicellular c.Very diverse i.Life cycles ii.Motility iii.Trophic level iv.Free living/symbionts d.Paraphyletic i.Grouped with only some of its descendants 1.Fish are paraphyletic common ancestor also created certain mammals and birds ii.Monophyletic: grouped with all its descendants 1.Mammals are monophyletic iii.Polyphyletic: grouped with other organisms that do not share a common ancestor II.Many protists are relevanta.Parasites i.Giardia: freshwater intestinal parasite; usually found downstream from farms ii.Trychomonas: STD iii.Trypanosoma: African Sleeping Sickness and Chagas Disease b.Symbioses i.Termites - $5bn annually in property damages 1.Trychonympha: endosymbiotic protist that lives in the guts of termites; aid in wood digesting process a.These protists rely on bacteria to assist with the process as well b.Coated with different bacteria that allow them to move (similar to cilia, but an ectosymbiotic organism) ii.Algae 1.Oxygen production a.Made up of protists (photosynthesis) and cyanobacteria b.Produce 330 billion tons of oxygen per year (70-80% of all oxygen production in the world) 2.Biofuels a.Algae oils used to produce fuels III.Kingdom Alveolataa.Monophyletic find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
b.Defined by presence of alveolaemembrane-enclosed cavities that support the cell membrane c.Important groups (for this class) i.Dinoflagellatesii.AP complexans IV.Planktona.Microscopic aquatic organisms b.Prokaryotes, protists, and animals c.Phytoplankton: photosynthetic i.Dinoflagellates V.Dinoflagellatesa.Unicellular; typically aquatic b.Two perpendicular flagella c.Cellulose plate armor d.Photosynthetic, heterotrophic or both e.Some are bioluminescent f.Coral reefs i.Zooxanthellae mutualistic with coral reef ii.Provide reefs with oxygen, food, energy; nutrient transfer, speed up calcification iii.Reefs provide zooxanthellae with protection and carbon dioxide iv.Reef bleaching 1.Occurs due to loss of zooxanthellae v.Estimated value of $375bn/yr 1.Millions of jobs; ecosystem find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com

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