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41 p a g e chapter 3 design methods and

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41 |P a g e
Chapter 3DESIGN, METHODS AND IMPLEMENTATION3.1 Design CriteriaPerformance;afurnacethatachievesamaximumtemperatureof12000Cwithminimal heat loss and fuel/ power consumptionEco-Sustainability:todesignafurnacethatisfriendlytotheecosystem,assuchincomplete combustion would be avoided.Safety:thedesignshouldnotposedangertotheoperatororothersintheneighbourhood.Maintainability:thefurnaceshouldbeeasymaintained,sothatpreventiveandcorrective maintenance be easily carried out.Cost: the design should not be expensive in terms of its capital andoperational costrather it should be cheap and affordable.Aesthetics:thedesignshouldbeaestheticallypleasingwithoutunnecessarilyjeopardizing the performance/function of the furnaceDurability: the furnace should be durablePower Sources: the design must be operable with two power sources,selected for this
design is Gas and Electricity3.2ConstraintMaterial availability: the design is constrained by the unavailability of certainmost preferredmaterial in the local market42 |P a g e
Manufacturability:thedesignistobefabricatedlocally,thuslimitingmanufacturingoperations.Budget/ Cost: the furnace is to be a low cost one and anything short of this inunacceptablethus placing a bar on the maximum amount to be spent on the project.3.3Design Calculation3.3.1 Charge Material ConsiderationMild steel is taken as the design material in consideration. It is a ferrousalloy, i.e. containing0.2%to2.1%carbonashardeningagent.ItalsocontainsChromium,Manganese,tungstenandVanadium.Otherthanamaximumlimitof2%carboninthemanufactureofCarbonsteel,theproportionofManganese(1.65%),copper(0.6%)andsilicon(0.6%)arefixed,whileproportionsofcobalt,chromium,niobium,molybdenum,titanium,nickel,tungsten,vanadiumandzirconiumarenotfixed.Thepercentageofcarboncontentdeterminesthemildness of the steel.Itismalleable. The ductility, hardnessand mildsteeltensile strengthare a function of the amount of carbon and other hardening agents present.Its average densityis 7861.093kg/m3 and a young modulus of about 210000MPa (Buzzle, 2015)buzzle.com
3.3.2 Crucible Volume:The crucible, a modified truncated cone was used to allow for circulation ofhot combustiongases round it for adequate heat transfer. It has a volume 0.00675 m3(6.75litres)Using mass- density- volume relation,……………………………………Equ.3.1Thus, mass = density * volume43 |P a g e
Therefore has a volume is capable of containing 0.00675 m3 *7861.093kg/m3= 53.06 kg ofmild steel.3.3.3 Furnace Chamber Volume/Dimension:The furnace Chamber which doubles as the combustion chamber iscylindrical with diameter0.29m and height 0.33mRadius = Diameter/ 2 = 0.29/2 = 0.145mVolume……………………………………Equ.3.2Volume = ()m3 = 21.8litres3.3.4 Adiabatic flame Temperature of Butane Gas:this is the maximumtemperatureattainable in a combustion process in a case of no limiting heat loss to thesurrounding. It isdependent on state of the reactant, the degree of completion of the reaction,and the amountof air used in the combustion process.

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Heat, Combustion, Heat Transfer, UNEP, Furnace, furnace chamber

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