The ultra nationalism and ethnocentrism of fascist

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The ultra-nationalism and ethnocentrism of fascist ideologies makes all of them racist. Some forms of fascism are also anti-Semitic (hostile to Jews) or xenophobic (fearful of foreign people). But not all fascist movements have this hostility toward racial and ethnic differences. Some modern forms of fascism, in fact, preach a “love of difference” and emphasize the need to preserve distinct ethnic identities, but keep them separate – a philosophical difference. 2) Attitudes Toward Religion In addition, fascist movements do not share a single approach to religion. Nazism was generally hostile to organized religion, and Hitler's government arrested hundreds of priests in the late 1930s. Some other early fascist movements, however, tried to identify themselves with a national church. In Italy, for example, the Fascists in the 1930s 12
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Power, Authority, and Exchange – ISS 225 Ideology attempted to gain legitimacy by linking themselves to the Catholic Church. In all these cases, however, the fascist movements have rejected the original spirit of Christianity by celebrating violence and racial purity. 3) Emphasis on Militarism Fascist movements also vary in their reliance on military-style organization. Some movements blend elite paramilitary organizations (military groups staffed by civilians) with a large political party led by a charismatic leader. For example, Nazi Germany had the “Brown Shirts” and the “Hitler Jugend.” In most cases, these movements try to rigidly organize the lives of an entire population. Fascism took on this military or paramilitary character partly because World War I produced heightened nationalism and militarism in many countries. 4) Use of Political Rituals Another feature of fascism that has largely disappeared from movements after World War II is the use of quasi-religious rituals, spectacular rallies, and the mass media to generate mass support. Both Nazism and Italian Fascism held rallies attended by hundreds of thousands, created a new calendar of holidays celebrating key events in the regime's history, and conducted major sporting events or exhibitions. All of this was intended to convince people that they lived in a new era in which history itself had been transformed. A prime example was the 1935 Nazi propaganda file “Triumph of the Will.” You can watch “Triumph of the Will” on YouTube at: There are also several small fascist leaning parties in the United States. The American Nazi Party is one of the more notorious. They can be found at . Take note of where their headquarters are located! Important Terms: Ideology Classical liberalism Capitalism Modern liberalism Modern conservatism Libertarianism Individualism Limited government Free markets Socialism Nationalization Welfare State 13
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Power, Authority, and Exchange – ISS 225 Ideology Communism Marxism (primitive communism, slave society, feudalism, capitalism, socialism, communism) Leninism Fascism Anti-conservatism Nationalism Social Darwinism Racism 14
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