Car seats have expiration dates o Car seats cannot be re-used if they were in a car accident o Car seats should never be purchased used o Any broken pieces of a car seat (straps, buckles) render the seat useless Health Concerns in Infancy o Failure to Thrive Inadequate growth resulting from inability to obtain and/or use calories Three Types: Organic: Known cause related to diagnosis – metabolic disorder
Nonorganic: cause not related to diagnosis – nothing physically wrong with kid, usually social issue (PT edu) Idiopathic: cause unknown o Colic Cries for more than 3 hours a day for at least 3 days a week More common in infants under 3 months, usually resolves within 3 months Usually no medical cause, but it can be associated with abdominal cramping and gas Harmless, but…. Leads to HIGH risk of abuse*** Make sure ALL needs are met – leave room and take a BREAK o SIDS Sudden death of an infant <1 year of age that remains unexplained after autopsy 3rd leading cause of death in infants to 1 year Peak age is 2-4 months SIDS Risk Factors Stomach Sleeping Male Child History of Prematurity Age 2-4 months Mom age less than 20 (organic coorelation) Second Hand Smoke Exposure Lack of Breastfeeding How to Reduce SIDS “Back to Sleep” Safe Bedding No Co-Sleeping Use of pacifier Avoid too warm of an environment o ALTE – Apparent Life Threatening Event Apnea, color change, choking or gagging Can be symptom of underlying disorder Admit for observation and possibly further testing o Jaundice Pathological Physiological ABNORMAL NORMAL (pattern of color change) Appears in first 24 hours Appears sometime in first WEEK Causes are more severe, such as liver infection, bile duct obstruction, metabolic disorder Usually simple cause: baby’s immature liver cannot breakdown and excrete hemoglobin quickly enough Kernicterus – untreated jaundice that causes permanent brain damage o Plagiocephaly o Infant Abuse o Immunization Pathological jaundice differs from physiological jaundice in that pathological: o is usually less severe o appears about 24 hours after birth o is present at birth o requires only frequent feedings and stools for resolution Plagiocephaly/Brachecephaly o When the infant’s soft skull becomes flattened in one area, due to repeated pressure on that particular part of the head o Does not affect brain, cosmetic issue o More common in premature infants o Tummy time **Kids with helmets*** Infant Abuse o Abuse Physical Bruises (on ribs/back) Broken bones Shaking – retinal hemorrhage and brain damage Choking Sexual Any sexual contact o Neglect Medical Nutrition Environmental o Important to distinguish between lack of resources, knowledge deficit, and patterns of behavior
o ***NURSES ARE MANDATED TO REPORT**** Abuse Risk Factors o Child factors Preterm birth, illness, congenital defects Feeding/sleeping issues fussiness, colic o Parent factors Child was unwanted/ unplanned History of abuse, mental illness, substance abuse Low financial status Outside stressors Immunization Vaccines o Please see the CDC’s website for more information about vaccine-preventable diseases.
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