DSST Astronomy notes 1

0000001 interplanetary medium 57 sun is a typical

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.0000001 Interplanetary Medium 57) Sun is a typical Star – a great sphere of luminous gas, which practically is the solar system a) Sun is composed of the same chemical elements of the Earth a.i) In the sun these elements are heated to the gaseous state 58) Visible part of the sun is 864,000 miles across a) The distance is 109 times the diameter of the Earth 59) Planets – small, cool and solid, in contrast to the sun a) They give off no light of their own b) Only shine by reflected sunlight c) All planets revolve around the sun in the same direction 60) Meteoroids – shooting stars – small objects orbiting the sun a) Often plunge through the Earth’s atmosphere and heat with friction until they vaporize “shooting stars” 61) Meteorite – a meteoroid that has survived its flight through Earth’s atmosphere and landed on the ground a) Many in museums b) Largest know have masses about 50 tons and the same elements that exist in Earth b.i)Ablation – the fragmentation and vaporization of a meteorite upon entering the atmosphere (b.i.1.a) As it collides with air molecules the pieces chip off 62) Satellites – of the planets are the next most prominent member of the solar system a) A body that revolves around a larger one, such as a moon or planet b) ONLY MERCURY, VENUS, AND PLUTO DO NOT HAVE KNOWN SATELLITES c) Jupiter has 63 satellites d) Saturn has 60 satellites e) Uranus has 27 satellites f) Neptune has 13 satellites g) Mars has 2 satellites h) Earth has 1 satellite 63) Interplanetary Medium – dust and gas is a sparse distribution of micrometeorites and atoms or electrons of gas throughout the solar system 64) Mercury – the smallest planet a) 3000 miles in diameter b) Lighted side has a temperature of 610K (640 F) hot enough to melt tin and lead c) Dark side is too cold to radiate a measurable amount of heat d) NO satellites 65) Venus – named for the goddess of love and beauty a) Called the Earth’s sister for it is most like the Earth in mass and size of all the planets b) NO satellites 66) Mars – called the “Newspaper Planet” – as it is most favorably situated of the planets for observation from the Earth a) Has a thin atmosphere b) Is composed almost entirely of carbon dioxide (95%)
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c) Surface shows that the planet once had an abundance of water c.i) Any water on the thin surface today would vaporize instantly d) Which means it had a thicker atmosphere one time e) Has 2 satellites 67) Jupiter – named for the leader of the gods a) Is the largest and most massive object in the solar system next to the sun b) Has 63 known satellites 68) Saturn – unique ring makes this planet the most impressive my telescope a) Second largest planet b) Named for the god of seed sowing, Father of Jupiter?? c) Has 60 satellites d) Galileo first saw the rings of Saturn , bus was unable to discern them clearly with his crude telescope e) Huygens in 1655, was able to describe their true form e.i) Moon of Saturn is Titan, and one of the largest moons in the solar system (e.i.1) Titan – moon of Saturn (e.i.1.a) Planet like atmosphere
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0000001 Interplanetary Medium 57 Sun is a typical Star a...

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