lated into worthwhile improvements in running performance measured

Lated into worthwhile improvements in running

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lated into worthwhile improvements in running performance measured theoretically and with real competition data. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank all of the ath- letes who participated in this study, as well as Katelyn Simon, Jordan Juzwiak, Jackie Magusin, Samantha Behl, Jen Gottardo, and Katelyn Erickson for their help with data collection. The authors have no pro- fessional relationship or afffiliation with Nike Inc. or Adidas AG. Compliance with Ethical Standards Ethical Approval This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki. Ethics approval was obtained from the Grand Valley State University Institutional Review Board (protocol number 18-021-H-GVSU). Informed Consent Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study. Funding Funding for this study was received through a College of Lib- eral Arts and Sciences Research Cluster Grant and Center for Scholarly and Creative Excellence at Grand Valley State University. Conflict of interest Kyle R. Barnes and Andrew E. Kilding declare that they have no confficts of interest relevant to the content of this article. References 1. di Prampero PE, Atchou G, Bruckner JC, Moia C. The energetics of endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1986;55(3):259–66. 2. Joyner MJ. Modeling: optimal marathon performance on the basis of physiological factors. J Appl Physiol. 1991;70(2):683–7. 3. Daniels JT. A physiologist’s view of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985;17(3):332–8. 4. Daniels JT, Daniels N. Running economy of elite male and elite female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(4):483–9. 5. Barnes KR, Kilding AE. Running economy: measurement, norms and determining factors. Sports Med Open. 2015;1:8. 6. Barnes KR, Kilding AE. Strategies to improve running economy. Sports Med. 2015;45(1):37–56. 7. Hoogkamer W, Kipp S, Frank JH, Farina EM, Luo G, Kram R. A comparison of the energetic cost of running in marathon racing shoes. Sports Med. 2018;48(4):1009–19.
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342 K. R. Barnes, A. E. Kilding 8. Hoogkamer W, Kipp S, Spiering BA, Kram R. Altered running economy directly translates to altered distance-running perfor- mance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(11):2175–80. 9. Nike. Breaking2. 2018. ng/breaking2 . Accessed 18 June 2018. 10. Hoogkamer W, Kram R, Arellano CJ. How biomechanical improvements in running economy could break the 2-hour marathon barrier. Sports Med. 2017;47(9):1739–50. 11. Low T, Hunter I, McLeod A, Valentine D, Ward J, Hager R. Running economy and marathon racing shoes. Estes Park: Rocky Mountain American Society of Biomechanics; 2018. 12. Anderson N, Valentine D, McLeod A, Ward J, Hager R, Hunter I. The beneff t of different marathon shoes through various run- ning mechanics. Estes Park: Rocky Mountain American Society of Biomechanics; 2018.
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