appeal to emotion Logos appeal to rational thought through logical arguments

Appeal to emotion logos appeal to rational thought

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– appeal to emotion Logos – appeal to rational thought through logical arguments, evidence, and reasoning 8. How do you create common ground with your audience? By connecting themselves with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience -Don't criticize their views/positions 9. What are the different types of reasoning and how do they work? i) Reasoning from specific instances (moves from particular facts to a general conclusion) ii) Reasoning from principle (moves from general principle to a specific conclusion) iii) Casual reasoning (cause/effect) iv) Analogical reasoning (compares two similar cases and inters that what is true for the first case is also true for the second) v) Fallacies (error in reasoning/avoid in your speeches)
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COMM 1110 Fall 2019 * Inductive reasoning – details all the proof, evidence, examples to lead the audience to the conclusion/claim (from specific instances) Deductive reasoning – start with a presumed truth or fact and then make smaller/specific claims based on it (from principle) Causal reasoning – establishes relationship between two events/ideas in a cause/effect manner Analogy – compares two events/ideas in order to evaluate or predict a rhetor’s point Additional Terms: target audience, burden of proof Additionally Be able to recognize the different logical fallacies - fallacy, red herring, ad hominem, slippery slope, false cause, bandwagon, etc. (consult the ELC page for the different kinds of fallacies) Logical fallacies – errors in reasoning : Like the other concepts we have discussed in class, these can work together – you may see combinations of fallacies. In any case, it is up to you as a rhetorical critic to show, and prove, why there is logical inconsistency (and what type), when you are discussing a rhetorical text. Fallacies are often not as obvious as the examples here – you have to dig into context, conduct research, etc. to prove that something is indeed a fallacy and not a truthful and logical argument. Straw man argument (present the weakest point of the opponent’s argument as if it is their strongest) – Person A has position 1, Person B describes Person A’s position differently and attacks that different position, all in order to defeat the real position 1 (by misrepresenting it). "Senator Rubio voted in favor of comprehensive immigration reform. I can’t understand why he is in favor of giving amnesty to people. That’s why I wouldn’t vote for him." (to deconstruct this: by voting for the reform bill, Rubio does not promote amnesty, but because the bill includes a provision that creates a path to citizenship, the other person misrepresents that as amnesty and reduces Rubio’s position on the bill to just this one issue, which when framed like that is easy to attack) Begging the question (assumes as already proven the very point you are trying to prove) – “We should deport illegal immigrants. Why? Because they are illegal.” Non-sequitur (arguments do not logically follow the claims) – “I built a successful casino. I have created a lot of jobs over the years. Therefore, I will make a good president of the country.”
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  • Spring '12
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