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C mara salvatrucha ms 13 a violent international gang

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c. Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) -A violent, international gang begun in southern California by immigrants from El Salvador, which engages in such crimes as burglary, narcotic sales, weapons smuggling, murder, rape, and witness intimidation d. Skinhead - Member of a European American supremacist gang, identified by a shaved skull and Nazi or Ku Klux Klan markings
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C. Schools 1. Academic Performance a. passive speech - A form of expression protected by the First Amendment, but not associated with actually speaking words; examples include wearing symbols or protest messages on buttons or signs. b. Tracking -Dividing students into groups according to their ability and achievement levels. c. Underachiever - Those who fail to meet expected levels of school achievement. 2. Legal rights in school a. In loco parentis - In the place of the parent; rights given to schools that allow them to assume parental duties in disciplining students. b. Zero tolerance policy - Mandating specific consequences or punishments for delinquent acts and not allowing anyone to avoid these consequences 3. Crimes and Misbehavior a. representing - Tossing or flashing gang signs in the presence of rivals, often escalating into a verbal or physical confrontation b. prestige crimes - Stealing or assaulting someone to gain prestige in the neighborhood; often part of gang initiation rites. D. Drugs 1. Use 2. Sale E. Media III. Understanding of Control, Prevention, and Treatment A. Juvenile Justice 1. Police a. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) - Unit in the U.S. Department of Justice established by the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to administer grants and provide guidance for crime prevention policy and programs 2. Courts a. adjudicatory hearing - The fact-finding process wherein the juvenile court determines whether there is sufficient evidence to sustain the allegations in a petition. b. Bifurcated process - The procedure of separating adjudicatory and dispositionary hearings so different levels of evidence can be heard at each. c. Detention hearing - A hearing by a judicial officer of a juvenile court to determine whether a juvenile is to be detained or released while proceedings are pending in the case d. Dispositions - For juvenile offenders, the equivalent of sentencing for adult offenders; juvenile dispositions should be more rehabilitative than retributive. e. Juvenile Justice process - Under the parens patriae philosophy, juvenile justice procedures are informal and nonadversarial, invoked for juvenile offenders rather than against them. A petition instead of a complaint is filed, courts make findings of involvement or adjudication of delinquency
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instead of convictions, and juvenile offenders receive dispositions instead of sentences. f. Systematic review - A type of review that uses rigorous methods for locating, appraising, and synthesizing evidence from prior evaluation studies.
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