Metabolism: energy consumption by biochemical processes. BMR: The basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy we would expend in a 24h period by doing nothing (just to stay alive). - 1500-1700 calories per day - Sedentary lifestyle: 2200 for men and 1800 for women. - Same amount of gasoline in both cars. Two cars may not last as long, depending on various factors. - Low BMR can actually predict obesity in the future. Tend to put on more weight because not as much food is needed to provide energy. - BMR increases as weight is gained. By the time weight is put on, the BMR is similar in obese and non-obese. You cannot burn a calorie. You burn some food components in the body to produce energy. Walking: 4 calories per minute. Dancing: 5.5 calories per minute Cycling: 8 calories per minute Swimming: 11 calories per minute Running: 16.5 calories per minute You can measure the oxygen inhaled relative to dioxide exhaled.
Humans are biochemically individual. We do not use the same amount of energy to do the same thing. Some people have more efficient metabolisms, requiring less calories to function. Metabolic syndrome: - more than 100cm waist. - HDL (good cholesterol) below 1ml/L - Triglycerides above 1.7 ml/L - High blood pressure - Blood glucose > 6.1ml/L - Part of it is genetic People with metabolic syndrome do better on a low carb diet. Is overweight genetic? Pima Native Americans: a large percentage in the US are grossly overweight. The Pima who live in Mexico don’t tend to be as overweight as the ones who live in the US. - May have some genetics but also how you eat Brown fat: more adept at converting the food components by burning them and releasing energy than our other fat cells. - Obese rodents tend to have less brown fat cells - More likely to be lean if you have more brown fat Exercise has the ability of converting white fat into brown fat. Genetics determine the white/brown fat ratio in the body. Setpoint Theory: somehow, the body has in mind the weight it is comfortable with. - Resistance to cutting back on calories. Weight will be loss in short term, but the body begins to readjust, by reducing the BMR. Fewer calories are coming in so we reduce the amount of energy needed to live. You then hit a plateau. - Increase exercise; it increases the BMR even when you are not exercising, like you are reprogramming your body. - Exercise with reduced calorie intake is what works.
Lesson 3: Weight Control II North American agriculture produces 3900 calories per person per day. We consume too many calories. - Ex. Soft drinks What is causing the rise in obesity? The emphasis has been a lot on fat, but it also has to do with sugar. Sucrose: disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose. Glucose is metabolized differently from fructose. - Fructose goes to the liver and can be used for energy but more of it tends to be converted into fat.
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