Inhibitory Effect: Positively charged potassium ions pass to the outside of the postsynaptic membrane, or negatively charged chloride ions enter, the membrane is inhibited and the graded potential results in making the membrane more negative(hyperpolarization). o Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSPs): A transitory state of hyperpolarization that occurs when inhibitory neurotransmitters inhibit the postsynaptic membrane of a receiving neuron. 7. List a number of neurotransmitters and describe the part of the nervous system where each is found and the types of behavior each influence.
Acetylcholine (Excitatory): Released from motor neurons onto muscle fibers to make them contract. o Location : Cortex, spinal cord, target organs activated by parasympathetic nervous system. o Function : Excitation in brain. Involved in learning, movement, and memory Norepinephrine (Excitatory): Major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is distributed throughout the CNS and PNS.
o Location: Spinal Cord, Limbic System, Cortex, target organs of sympathetic nervous system. o Function: Arousal of reticular system. Involved in eating, emotional behavior, learning, and memory. Dopamine (Inhibitory): A neurotransmitter involved with the initiation of motor movement, attention, and learning and memory. Mediates rewards and pleasure and it is the substance of addiction. o Location : Limbic System, Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum. o Function : Involved in movement, emotional behavior, attention, learning, memory, and reward. Serotonin (Inhibitory): Involved in the control of the sleep/wake cycle, mood, and appetite. Deficiencies in serotonin are associated with sleep disorders, aggression, and depression. o Location: Brain stem, Most of Brain. o Function: Involved in emotional behavior, arousal, and sleep. Gama-amino butyric acid (GAMA) (Inhibitory): Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It plays an important role in regulating arousal and anxiety. o Location : Most of the brain and spinal cord. o Function : Regulating arousal, majority inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain. Endorphins (Inhibitory): Neurotransmitter substances that function to inhibit the transmission of pain information. Morphine and other opiates act by facilitating endorphin transmission. o Location : Spinal Cord, most of Brain. o Function : A natural analgesic for pain reduction, involved in emotional behavior, eating, and learning. Glutamate (Excitatory) : An Amino Acid derived from glucose. MSG contains Glutamate. o Location : Brain and Spinal Cord o Function : Major excitatory neurotransmitter in brain. Involved in learning. The Peripheral Nervous System : 8. Discuss the components of and function of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 10 pages?
- Fall '19
- Jane Smith