their power and strength to a government to one man or an assembly of men to

Their power and strength to a government to one man

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their power and strength to a government – to one man or an assembly of men to bear their person The Leviathan, our Mortal God 23 “A multitude of men, are made one person, when they are by one man, or one person, represented” 24
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11/4/19 7 Leviathan: “There is no power on earth to be compared to him.” Job 41:24 25 Celebrating the 2011 Killing of Tyrant Gaddafi 26 Problem of Order Libya, 2011 NATO bombings Killing of Gaddafi 2014, July Foreign embassies evacuated 2014, Oct 15, BBC The new parliament elected in June has been forced to flee from hostile militias in Tripoli to a hotel in Tobruk near the Egyptian border. In Tripoli, the old parliament still sits and has appointed a rival government. Benghazi, the second city, is largely in the hands of Islamists. There are daily assassinations of officials, journalists and social activists. Etc. 2018 Three rival governments and many local armed forces…. 27 28
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11/4/19 8 Hobbes Review State of Nature (no government) is a State of War There will only be peace if an absolute ruler forces it with punishment of violators The people, society, justice, do not exist prior to the ruler The ruler’s power is absolute and perpetual One must not disobey or rebel against the ruler Even if the ruler is tyrannical, because civil war is worse 29 John Locke (1632-1704) Social contract theorist – generation after Hobbes Contra Hobbes: The people, society, and justice, are prior to state formation Sovereignty is delegated by the people to a ruling body obliged to obey its own laws and to respect basic rights The people have the right to reclaim sovereignty from an illegitimate ruler Otherwise, “This is to think that men are so foolish that they take care to avoid what mischiefs may be done them by polecats or foxes, but are content, nay, think it safety, to be devoured by lions.” 30 Politician and Philosopher Leading political theorist in England Chief ideologist and secret political organizer of the Glorious Revolution (1688): From absolute to constitutional monarchy English Bill of Rights Next, the leading philosopher of Europe 31 Locke Vocabulary II.6 Property = Life, liberty, health, limb, or goods For religious Locke, one is made and owned by God, cannot be owned by other humans Today’s secular Lockean theorists talk about “self-ownership” Laws Law of nature innate, spontaneous, natural Positive law – explicit decree by God or State State of nature Way to explain and justify civil society (we call it government): Imagine what would life be like without government 32
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11/4/19 9 More Differences from Hobbes Locke’s State of Nature can be a state of peace or a state of war For Locke, there can be peace in the state of nature and a more perfect peace in civil society Not by submission to an absolute ruler, but Because of positive reciprocity See obscure quotation of Barclay in Ch. 2 Translation: Humans are equal (the same). I know
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