Are there risks involved with de emphasizing or

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Are there risks involved with de-emphasizing or eliminating organizational control? ANS: The purpose of control is to "monitor" organizational activities and to make sure they are "on track" and achieving predetermined objectives. In many instances, this is a very valuable function, because it alerts decision-makers to problems in key areas. A "good plan" and even "good leadership" is no substitute for control. There are many environmental and organizational contingencies that cannot be anticipated in advance. As a result, even the best conceived plan can experience difficulty if it is adversely impacted by unanticipated events. The process of control acts as an "early warning system" and provides decision-makers critical feedback relative to the performance of a plan. This feedback would not be available if a control system was not in place. DIF: D OBJ: 1 2. Many organizations are placing an increasing amount of emphasis on feedforward control. Why do you believe that this is the case? What is the inherent advantage of feedforward versus feedback control? ANS: Feedforward control focuses on identifying undesirable "inputs" into the production process or service delivery system. As a result, feedforward control is analogous to "preventive" control. This is a very desirable form of control, because it addresses the issue of the quality of the inputs into the production process before the process begins. In contrast, feedback control focuses on discovering undesirable "outputs" and implementing corrective action. The principle idea behind feedforward control is to minimize the amount of feedback control that is necessary. DIF: M OBJ: 6 3. What is meant by "timeliness" in feedback reporting? Give some examples (other than those in the book) of different degrees of "timeliness" that would be needed in different situations. ANS: Timeliness refers to the degree to which the control system provides information when it is needed. As mentioned in the book, the key issue here is not how fast the feedback information is provided, but whether it is provided quickly enough to permit a response to an unacceptable deviation. What is considered "timely" will vary considerably according to the situation. For instance, cardiac patients in an intensive care unit are carefully monitored, and any change in their heart rates are immediately brought to the attention of their nurses and doctors. This is an instance where "timely" means immediate. In contrast, a person with a less serious ailment may be prescribed a medicine and asked to check back with the doctor in a "week or so" to see how things are going. In this instance, "timely" means several days. The salient point is that the timeliness of a control system should match the urgency of the situation and provide organizational members sufficient time to respond to unacceptable deviation.
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