Chapter 3 - Cell Structure and Genetic Control-1.pptx

Fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane drawing of the

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Fluid-Mosaic Model of Plasma Membrane Drawing of the fluid-mosaic model of the membrane , showing the phospholipid bilayer and embedded proteins. Fig 3.2
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Fig 3.13 Nucleus The nucleus contains DNA and controls cell activities.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum There are ribosomes on the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. Fig 3.12
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Fig 3.11 Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus modifies proteins from the ER and packages them into vesicles for distribution.
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Fig 3.9 Mitochondria Energy production occurs in the mitochondria .
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Other Cell Organelles Lysosomes Perform clean up Destroy bacteria, damaged organelles, etc…
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The cytoskeleton is comprised of a network of interconnected microtubules, which consist of protein filaments. They function in movement and support. Fig 3.8 Cytoskeleton
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Protein Synthesis Requires Multiple Organelles
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Protein Synthesis In the cell, DNA and RNA are responsible for the synthesis of proteins . Much of the body is made of proteins. Proteins have many functions in the body, as we will see throughout the semester. See Table 2.4 Examples : cell signaling, membrane receptors, enzymes, ion channels, cell attachment, cytoskeleton, locomotion, hormones Proteins are large molecules, sequences of amino acids (building blocks). There are 20 amino acids. Peptide: string of < 10 amino acids Polypeptide: string of 10-100 amino acids Protein: > 100 amino acids
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Central dogma of molecular biology: genes to proteins Gene : region of DNA in the nucleus that codes for a
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