With my persis tence and enthusiasm for the theory

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“culture was irrelevant and unnecessary.” With my persis- tence and enthusiasm for the theory, some nurses began to support the idea. In 1991, the theory book Culture Care Diversity and Uni- versality took hold and was a great breakthrough in caring for the culturally different. This book has been the primary and definitive resource to discover largely unknown and limitedly valued culture care knowledge and practical uses in client care. My second edition of Transcultural Nursing (1995) con- tributed a wealth of new research-based knowledge on 30 Western and non-Western cultures, plus refinements in research methods, teaching, clinical practices, and adminis- tration. The third edition of Transcultural Nursing by Leininger and McFarland (2002) provides theory-based research and practice by transcultural nurse scholars in many Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Vol. 13 No. 3, July 2002 189-192 © 2002 Sage Publications
cultures and is the most definitive, authoritative, and compre- hensive transcultural nursing book available. The Culture Care theory has been well established today and is used by many nurses worldwide. In fact, many nurse leaders hold that “it has been the most significant break- through in nursing and the health fields in the 20th century and will be in greater demand in the 21st century” (Leininger, 1997). With the horrible and tragic events of September 11, 2001, the need for understanding of transcultural violence, terrorism, hatred, and killing of innocent people has increased. Indeed, in 1950, I predicted that such violence would occur unless transcultural care knowledge was used worldwide to prevent such destructive human acts. Today, the theory is known for its broad, holistic yet culture-specific focus to discover meaningful care to diverse cultures. The theory had provided a body of theory-based research knowledge for the growing discipline and practice of transcultural nursing. It provides some entirely new teaching content and ways to care for immigrants and refugees of many different and neglected cultures. This knowledge is gradually transforming health systems and changing nursing practices into relevant new ways of functioning. Research findings from the theory, however, far exceed their full uses in nursing and health services. Nurses prepared in using the theory find it is meaningful and rewarding to use because of the holistic and yet culture-specific care practices (Leininger, 1995; Leininger & McFarland, 2002). More and more often, other nurse theorists are now including culture and care in their nursing theories or using concepts of the theory because of its importance today. SOME MAJOR AND UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE THEORY Before presenting a brief on the culture care theory, some major, unique, and contributing features can be listed at the outset. First, the theory remains one of the oldest theories in nursing as it was launched in the mid-1950s. Second, it is the only theory explicitly focused on the close interrelationships of culture and care on well-being, health, illness, and death.

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