Vision and articulation – has a vision—express as and idealized goal—that proposes a future better than the status quo and is able to clarify the importance of the vision
b. Personal risk—willing to take on high personal risk and engage in self sacrifice c. Sensitivity to follower needs—perceptive of others abilities and responsive to their needs d. Unconventional behavior—engages in behavior that are perceives as novel e. Some individuals are born with charismatic traits f. Others are trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors i. Optimistic view point, using passion as catalyst, communication with whole body ii. Create a bond that inspires others to follow iii. Tapping into follower’s emotions g. Situation and leaders vision important, there is a dark side of charismatic leadership (Adolf Hitler) 57. Transactional and transformational leaders a. Transactional leaders are Leaders who motivate followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying the role and task requirements i. Contingent reward exchanging reward for effort ii. Management by exception leader watches and actively looks for deviation from rules and standards and takes actions to correct iii. Passive by exception—intervenes only if standards are not met iv. Laissez-Faire abdicates responsibilities, avoid making decisions b. Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the goals of the organization i. Idealized influence—charismatic aspect, provides vision and sense of mission, able to articulate that and instill pride, inspire people to go above and beyond, gain respect and trust ii. Inspirational motivation—communicate high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, express important purposes in a simple way iii. Intellectual stimulation—promotes intelligence, rationality and careful problem solving
iv. Individualized consideration—gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches and advises—acts as a mentor or a coach c. Transformational leadership works: i. Creativity ii. Decentralization of responsibility iii. Propensity to take risks because they are inspired iv. Compensation geared to long term results v. Greater agreement among top managers about organizational goals vi. Increase follower self-efficacy increase as a part of transformational leadership d. Evaluation of transformational leadership i. Supported at different job levels and occupations but isn’t equally effective in all situation ii. Has a greater impact on the bottom line in smaller, privately held firms than in more complex organizations? iii. GLOBE study links a number of elements of transformational leadership with effective leadership, regardless of country 1. Disputes the contingency view that leadership style needs to adapt to cultural differences 2. Universal elements are vision, foresight, providing encouragement, trustworthiness, dynamism, positiveness, proactive Other types of leadership 58. Authentic leadership a. Know who they are b. Know what they believe in and value c. Act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly d. Share information e. encourage open communication
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